Biomedical Research

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Review Article - Biomedical Research (2019) Volume 30, Issue 2

The role of bone morphogenetic protein 2 in the reprogramming of cancer stem cells

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a family member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) superfamily and firstly recognized in early embryonic and postnatal development. BMP-2 has been reported to have crucial role in bone and cartilage formation, tissues and organs development, regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, angiogenesis, morphogenesis, chemotaxis, cellular survival and apoptosis. The BMPs are also identified as factors in tumor development and propagation; distinctly associated to diverse sides of carcinogenesis. The theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) hypothesized that only a small hierarchical organization of cells is assisting tumorigenesis and inheriting cellular heterogeneity throughout long-life primary tumor. Reprogramming of CSCs using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) approach possibly benefits in identifying the CSCs-related oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, and interactions between CSCs-related genes and the cancer microenvironment. Moreover, the reprogramming technology may provide crucial information related to cancer initiation and progression. This review will be focusing on BMP-2 signaling in modulating normal cells, human diseases, and cancer progression and suppression. Furthermore, this review will provide summary of updated reports on the role of BMP-2 in the developments of CSCs and its possible role as therapy through reprogramming technology by BMP-2 as an important regulatory factor in modulating the proliferation and aggressive properties of CSCs

Author(s): Muhammad Fawwaz Abdullah, Mudiana Muhamad, Sharaniza Ab-Rahim

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