The use of medical imaging technology MRI can provide the basis for the clinical diagnosis of anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament of the lower cervical spine, help to develop a reasonable treatment plan, and reduce the incidence of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. Therefore, the study on the reliability of MRI detection technology in the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament injury of the lower cervical spine is very important for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Retrospective analysis of 53 cases of anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament injuries caused by physical exercise in a hospital from February 2010 to April 2015 was conducted. On the one hand, preoperative imaging diagnosis evaluation results and surgical exploration results were comparatively analysed. On the other hand, the differences of the diagnostic results under three different criteria of T1D, T2L and T2T were comparatively analysed, in order to carry out the consistency and reliability of MRI test in the diagnosis. By analysing the results, it can be seen that the deviation between the MRI and the results of the operation is small, and it has a good consistency. When the T2T standard is used for analysis, the specificity, sensitivity, accuracy, negative and positive predictive values are all higher. According to the study results, in the diagnosis of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligament of the lower cervical spine, the T2T standard is used to detect the MRI image, which can be widely used in clinical practice.