This study is to investigate the effect of chemotherapy on living quality, anxiety and immunity of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. 78 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with chemotherapy in hospital were selected randomly. The clinical effect of chemotherapy on patients was evaluated every two cycles. The living quality, anxiety and immunity of patients with lung cancer were graded. Before chemotherapy, the scores of living quality functional fields, fatigue and dyspnoea were high. There were 53.8% patients with anxiety. The score of SAS was 52.36 ± 6.42. After two cycles of chemotherapy, dyspnoea was obviously improved, while insomnia and loss of appetite were obviously increased. There were 73.1% patients with anxiety and the score of SAS was 52.36 ± 6.18, which were significantly increased compared with before chemotherapy. After four cycles of chemotherapy, the scores of body, role, emotion and social function were obviously reduced, while nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, constipation and financial difficulty were worse. There were 80.8% patients with anxiety. The score of SAS was 55.27 ± 6.42. Compared with two cycles of chemotherapy, the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with before chemotherapy, the number of CD8+ was decreased, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ was increased. The physical status of part patients was relieved after chemotherapy, but their anxiety was quite obvious and their immunity and living quality were decreased. Medical worker should be timely evaluated patients’ living quality and emotional changes, provide a good job of health and prevention, and actively carry out psychological counselling for patients.