The study was to evaluate the roles of Adiponectin (ADP) in alleviating myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats with Remote Ischemic Postconditioning (RIP). A total of 57 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (the sham operation group (S), the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion group (I/R), and the RIP group (R). The myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established by ligating the left coronary artery for 30 min followed by 180-min reperfusion. Group R was performed RIP after 20 min ligation of the left coronary artery, and the ST segment amplitudes were recorded at the 30, 60, 120, and 180 min after reperfusion. 3 ml of jugular venous blood was sampled at the 180 min after reperfusion for the detection of serum ADP, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) activity, and cTnI concentration. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed to measure the myocardial Infarct Size (IS) and sample the myocardial tissue to detect the content of ADP. Compared with group S, the ADP contents in the serum and myocardial tissue in group I/R and R were deceased, but IS, serum CKMB activity, and cTnI concentration were increased, and the ST segment was elevated (P<0.05). Compared with group I/R, the ADP contents in the serum and myocardial tissue in group R were increased, but IS, serum CK-MB activity, cTnI concentration, and the ST segment were decreased. ADP is involved in RIP that can alleviate the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.