This study aimed to investigate and explore the prevalence and associated risk factors of Microalbuminuria (MAU) in middle-aged and elderly populations. A total of 1,086 middle-aged and elderly populations who underwent physical examination in our hospital were selected using the randomized cluster sampling method for the health questionnaire survey in April 2013. Related laboratory index tests were also performed to analyze the prevalence and associated risk factors of MAU that may possibly affect the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. A total of 139 MAU patients were selected (detection rate, 12.80%), including 119 men and 20 women. Statistical significance was not observed between the two groups (P>0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that age (Odds Ratio (OR)=1.038), fasting blood glucose (OR=1.533), and waist circumference (OR=1.033) were the independent risk factors of MAU in men. The prevalence of MAU in Chinese middle-aged and elderly populations is similar to those reported in other countries. The related risk factors should be closely monitored and addressed as early as possible to prevent the progress of kidney diseases.