Introduction: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare pediatric disease. Despite significant advances in the methods of treatment, still the disease presents high mortality rates.
Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the prognostic factors that determine the rates of morbidity and mortality among children suffering with acute renal failure and admitted to Paediatric Intensive Care Units in Oran (Algeria).
Methods: A retrospective study was conducted of the data obtained from the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital of Oran. The prognostic factors associated with ARF were recorded for of 260 patients over a period of 20 years. The parameters that were noted at the time of admission of ICU patients are: age, sex, clinical severity, underlying diseases, type and ARF mechanism, diuresis, the time to onset of ARF (ARF early: 1 to 2 days, late ARF: 3 days), the concentration of creatinine, use of mechanical ventilation, associated organ failure, diuretics administration, the use of positive inotropes, the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), outcomes of the treatment and follow-up data of one year. All these data were collected and analyzed statistically. PRISM score and pediatric RIFLE criteria at the time of admission were used to characterize the patients.
Results: The mean age of pediatric patients was 77.261 ± 4.401 months. ARF was diagnosed in 38% of the patients at the time of admission while 61.5% acquired it in the hospital. Renal replacement therapy was administered in 63% of the cases. The overall mortality was 24%. The results of Univariate analysis revealed significant association of the clinical score severity at admission (p=0.0025), oligo anuria (p=0.0043), age<12 months, creatine at admission (p=0.0017), more than two organ failure and vasopressives drugs (p=0.0037). Interestingly, mortality was found to be associated with the PRISM score at baseline (RR: 2.1 [CI: 1.5 to 6.8], sepsis complicated by more than two organ failure (RR: 17.25 [CI: 2.8 to 33.9]; p=0.002) and age less than 1 year.
Conclusion: The findings of the present study highlight the most relevant prognostic factors associated with occurrence of morbidity or mortality in pediatric ARF patients. Further clinical studies should be conducted for the application of these parameters as prognostic factors in future recommendations.