Biomedical Research

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Prevalence and relationship of low bone mineral density in the development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Objective: To assess the prevalence of low bone mineral density in Chinese patients, and to determine the potential risk factor in development of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) among Chinese patients.

Materials and Methods: A total of 120 JIA who routinely undergoing Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scanning selected from Department of Pediatrics, Ren Ji Hospital, China between January 2014 to December 2016. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA in all 120 patients. Lumbar Spine (LS) BMD of less than -1 and more than and equal to -2.5 score of BMD is defined as Osteopenia. Lumbar spine BMD of less than -2.5 score of BMD is defined as osteoporosis. Data on disease activity, QoL, BMI, age, gender, ethnicity, medication use, duration of medication use, clinical characteristics, and adolescence status were collected.

Result: Data of all 120 patients were analysed. In our study, 39% of subjects had osteopenia, whereas 21% subjects had osteoporosis. Of total, 20% of patients had low BMD. Our statistical analysis results showed a significant relationship between osteopenia and patients’ age, diseases duration, treatment (corticosteroid) duration and dose of corticosteroid, were found to be highly correlated. Dose of corticosteroid (cumulative) dose and duration of diseases were found to be significantly related with LS osteopenia, whereas duration of disease positively related with LS osteoporosis.

Conclusion: Our results suggested that osteopenia and osteoporosis are common in Chinese patients with JIA. Dose of corticosteroid therapy and duration of diseases is mainly associated with JIA as it strongly linked with LS osteoporosis, LS osteopenia and low BMD.

Author(s): Wenjing Zhou, Lingyun Xu, Yanming Lu