Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR) and Extra Uterine Growth Retardation (EUGR) and provide more approaches for appropriate nutritional support for preterm infants.
Methods: A total of 144 preterm infants (75 male and 69 female) were involved in this study. According to the relationship between gestational age and birth weight, all the preterm infants were divided into two groups of Appropriate-for-Gestational-Age infants (AGA) and Small-for-Gestational-Age infants (SGA); meanwhile, based on the different nutritional strategy, the infants were classified into group of aggressive nutritional and non- aggressive nutritional strategy. Finally, laboratory examination and the growth parameters in preterm infants were analysed.
Results: The incidence of IUGR in birth weight, length and head circumference was 61.11%, 20.83% and 25.69%, respectively. According to the measurement of birth weight and length, there was significant difference in the incidence of IUGR amongst the three groups based on body weight<1500 g, 1500-2000 g and 2000-2500 g (all p<0.05). Compared between IUGR and AGA group, there was significant difference in birth weight, length, and head circumference at discharge (all p<0.05). Maternal preeclampsia, rather than any other parameters of maternal or neonatal complications, had a significant effect on the occurrence of both IUGR and EUGR. There were significant differences in the weight growth rate, head circumference growth rate, intravenous nutrition application time, height at discharge and head circumference at discharge in infants with aggressive nutritional support (all p<0.05).
Conclusion: Aggressive parenteral nutrition can promote physical development and decrease the incidence of EUGR in low birth weight infants.