Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is presented as a dissociative identity clinical picture, accompanied by emotional disturbances such as depression, anxiety and apathy that lead to quality of life deterioration. Likewise, PTSD affects cognitive domains such as information processing (attention), evocation, consolidation and storage (memory), inability of individuals to plan, organize and direct their immediate behavior (executive functions), visual spatial, visual constructive and sensorial integration skills alterations have also been found. It was found that the prefrontal cortex, cingulate gyrus, limbic system, amygdala often have volumetric decrease in each of their structures, generating clinical symptoms of posttraumatic alexithymia, where the subject is unable to adequately respond to environmental stimuli, has problems in working memory, episodic memory and flash backs states that only accentuate behavioral problems presented in subjects with a diagnosis of PTSD. It is important that new lines of research focus on functional aspects of Neurorehabilitation, with the aim of improving the quality of life for the subjects, and thus preventing PTSD from becoming a mental health problem. At the end of the review there is an integrative proposal that aims to improve social, individual and familiar aspects of people with PTSD.