Uric Acid (UA) nephrolithiasis is a constant threat to worldwide public health, its underlying pathogenesis is not elucidated yet. We previously identified that the overexpression of Urate Transporter 1 (URAT1) in the kidney was closely related with the UA nephrolithiasis, but the up-regulation mechanism was unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the possible miRNAs involved in regulating the renal expression of URAT1 in UA Stone Formers (UASF). MiRNAs microarray analysis revealed seven down-regulated miRNAs in the renal cortex of UASF compared with normal controls. Bioinformatic analysis suggested miR-1291, only one of the candidate miRNAs, could bind the 3'UTR of URAT1 gene. Furthermore, the down-regulated MiR-1291 and overexpression of URAT1 in the kidney of UASF were detected with real-time PCR. Thus, we inferred that the URAT1 gene was modulated by miR-1291, which was involved in up-regulated renal expression of URAT1 in UASF. More persuasive conclusion needs further research.