Although anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) enhance the ability of athletes, but it can cause the destructive effects on athletes’ health. In this paper, we reviewed and introduced medical consequences of long-term AASs abuses in athletes and the risks of AASs utilization have been investigated. Some side effects were reduced spermatogenesis, testicular shrinkage in men, menstrual disorders and the development of male characteristics in women, liver toxicity and liver cancer. Some changes such as blood cells counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, changes in glucose concentration, sex hormones, liver enzymes, changes in the parameters concentration related to iron metabolism, BUN, urea, uric acid, creatinine, LDH have also been observed. The other changes were blood clots, fluid retention, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, changes in lipid profiles, liver toxicity, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, oily hair, persistent bad breath, problem with sleeping, severe acne, feet swelling, trembling, shrinking of the testicles, reduced sperm count and sexual functioning, infertility. In addition, baldness, gynecomastia, risk of prostate cancer, changes in menstrual cycle, enlargement of the clitoris, growth of facial hair, increased sex drive, male pattern baldness in women, and shrinking of the breasts have been observed. Also, behavioural and psychological side effects were identified such as aggressive behaviours, mood swings, getting angry and very irritable over trivial daily incidences, forgetful, distracted, depressive behaviours, hallucinations and delusions. Because the potential benefits were not enough for consumers; therefore, identification and prevention of adverse effects on athletes taking these medications should be warned.