The aim of this study was to study the expression changes of neurite outgrowth inhibitor A (Nogo-A), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in rat brain tissues after craniocerebral injury, and to investigate the neural repair mechanism of experimental craniocerebral injury in rats. The control group was only cut the top scalp and removed the skull, while the model group was performed moderate brain contusion. The expression levels of Nogo-A, GFAP and IGF-1 in the peripheral lesion tissues were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The immunohistochemical results showed that Nogo-A, GFAP and IGF-1 were expressed in the control group at various time points, while the change amplitudes were small. The expressions of Nogo-A, GFAP and IGF-1 in the model group at each time point were higher than the sham-surgery group (P<0.05), GFAP reached the peak at 3 d, while Nogo-A and IGF-1 reached the peaks at 7 d; after that, they all gradually decreased and approached normal levels at 28 d. The expressions of Nogo-A, GFAP and IGF-1 in rat brain tissues after craniocerebral injury were increased; through reducing the inhibitory factors of axonal growth and the formation of glial scar barrier, as well as promoting the expressions of the related neurotrophic factors, the prognosis of craniocerebral injury could be improved.