Clinically, elbow joint dysfunction is more common. It is mainly caused by many traumatic factors, such as elbow joint injury and elbow surgery. Anatomic structure of elbow joint is complex. In the past, there were limitations and deficiencies in the diagnosis and treatment of elbow joint disease. Current minimally invasive arthroscopic treatment of elbow joint disease has opened up an important way. It has broad application prospects and it also has been the focus of foreign and domestic research institutions. Based on this, in view of structure and function of the elbow joint, the difficulty and operation process of elbow arthroscopic mini-invasive surgery in the treatment of elbow dysfunction were studied. 74 patients who had difficulty in elbow flexion and extension received arthroscopic treatment of elbow joint in West China Hospital of Sichuan Province. After the operation, the rehabilitation function training was carried out according to the unified standardization program. Mayo elbow function score was used to compare the degree of flexion and extension of the elbow joint before and after the operation. The results of the study were analyzed, and the advantages, considerations and application prospect of arthroscopic elbow surgery were discussed. Practice has proved that the elbow arthroscopy miniinvasive surgery has the advantages of small trauma and fast recovery, which is an effective way to treat elbow flexion and extension dysfunction.