Biomedical Research

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Cytotoxicity study and morphological changes of different extraction for Bismillah leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) in human glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U-87)

Objective: Vernonia amygdalina, commonly known as Bismillah leaves has emerged as Malaysian herbal armament with potential health benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity effect of different number polarity solvent extracts for Bismillah leaf and observed morphological changes of human glioblastoma multiforme cell line (U-87).

Methods: Brain tumours are the priority care to be treated using alternative method as it is the second main movement of cancer related deaths. Among all types, glioblastoma multiforme (U-87) had known for the most aggressive type as after through the standard surgical procedure, the endurance still very short due to high-resistance. Thus, cell line of U-87 was chosen as a model in this study. For Bismillah leaf extraction, three solvents were used; ethanol, methyl alcohol and ethyl acetate. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts then was evaluated using MTT assay and the cell morphology was observed using light microscope.

Results: The ethyl acetate extracts of Vernonia amygdalina reach IC50 with 48.0 ± 26.72 μg/ml. The methanolic and ethanolic extracts shown no value of IC50; but there was significantly difference value (p<0.05) between concentration of 100 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml, 25 μg/ml, 12.5 μg/ml, 6.25 μg/ml, 3.125 μg/ml and 1.563 μg/ml of ethanol extract on cytotoxicity study in U-87.

Conclusion: In this study done with three solvents polarity used, only Bismillah leaves of ethyl acetate extracts displayed cytotoxic activity to U-87 cell line. Therefore, this plant could be an important source of safer cytotoxic compounds for glioblastoma multiforme cancer cell lines. Even so, it was indicated that specific mechanisms of anti-proliferative effects of Vernonia amygdalina extracts to be examined in the hereafter. As well, more trials should be further conducted on a bigger scale to evaluate the efficacy of the purported discussion.

Author(s): Mohd Adzim Khalili bin Rohin, Norhaslinda Ridzwan, Mimie Noratiqah Jumli, Norhayati Abd Hadi, Syed Ahmad Tajudin Tuan Johari, Ahmad Zubaidi A Latif