Objectives: To determine the Hb F levels and to correlate with Biochemical parameters such as Liver Function Test (LFT), Complete Blood Count (CBC) and disease severity in diagnosed cases of Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) aged 1-16 years from Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia.
Methods: 5 ml blood was collected in Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) in vacutainers for automated complete blood count for determination of Hb F levels. 3 ml of blood was taken in plain tubes for analyses of biochemical parameters.
Results: Significant variations in CBC parameters were observed. There was a significant increase in White Bood Cells counts (WBC), platelets levels and Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW) compared to controls while other indices were significant decreased compared to controls. More importantly, significant variations in Liver Function Test (LFT) parameters were observed and all LFT parameters were increased compared with controls. Hb S levels remained highly elevated to 77.74 ± 9.86% (mean ± SD) in all patients compared to controls in which HbS could not be detected. Interestingly, the levels of Hb F were significantly elevated 13.19 ± 9.85% (mean ± SD) in patients compared to controls 1.4 ± 0.6% (mean ± SD). Increases in all parameters were seen in both male and female patients compared to controls.
Conclusion: The clinical phenotype of SCA in Saudi Arabia undergoes regional variations with the Western province reporting more severe phenotype compared to the Eastern province which has many mild features. This indicates a need for long-term comprehensive studies with special attention and timely screening of SCA complications in each region.