This study aims to investigate appropriate treatment methods for floating shoulder injury (FSI). Fiftysix FSI patients treated from February 2006 to August 2014 were enrolled, and divided into three groups: a nonsurgical treatment group (Group A), a surgical treatment with single clavicular fixation group (Group B), and a surgical treatment with combined clavicular and scapular fixation group (Group C). The Herscovici FS efficacy scoring system and the Constant-Murley shoulder scoring systems were used to score affected shoulder functions. The variables of these three groups were compared with the one-way ANOVA. The follow-up was 17.1 months (6 to 30 months), and all fractures healed. The scores of the three groups had statistically significant differences. Regardless of the Herscovici or Constant scores, group A showed significant differences when compared with groups B and C, but there was no difference between groups B and C; however, there were significant differences in operative time and intraoperative blood loss. Surgery showed an obvious advantage for the restoration of shoulder functions in FSI patients; although the single clavicular fixation and the combined clavicular and scapular fixation showed no difference, single clavicular fixation had lower treatment risks.