Objective: Because of the increase in the infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae ; nowadays colistin is used more frequently. In this study, the firstly detected colistin resistance in carbapenem-resistant KPC-producing K. pneumoniae strains were evaluated.
Material and methods: For identification and susceptibility testing; VITEK 2 Compact (bioMérieux, France) have been used. Because of resistance; MICs were studied with gradient test method in Microbiology Reference Laboratory, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey for confirmation. The presence of carbapenem resistance genes (OXA23, NDM1, OXA48, KPC, VIM ve IMP ) was investigated by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) method was used to determine the clonal relationships between strains. PCR and PFGE tests have been studied in Molecular Microbiology Research and Application Laboratory Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratories, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkey.
Results: All strains were resistance for carbapenems and colistin Two of four strains were isolated from patients hospitalized in intensive care and two of them were isolated from patients hospitalized in clinics. Resistance to carbapenems were confirmed genotypically. Two strains isolated from patients in clinics were positive for NDM1 and OX-48, and isolates from patients in intensive care unit were positive for only OXA-48 carbapenem genes. PFGE typing method described two clones that have a relationship with each other. The strains in which NDM1 and OXA-48 were together positive were in one clone and OXA-48-positive strains were in other clone.
Conclusion: The emergence of colistin resistant strains is a very important problem due to decrease of treatment options for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant KPC producing K. pneumoniae. Colistin should not be used alone, combination therapy should be preferred.