Wild edible mushrooms have been collected and consumed by people from many countries for thousands of years, having been known to possess various pharmacological benefits. There is a great variety of wild populations of mushrooms in different climate and geographical regions in the world. However, there is inadequate data in the literature regarding identity and medicinal and biochemical properties of Iranian wild mushrooms. The focus of this mini-review is largely on identification of Iranian wild mushrooms and their antioxidant potential. In addition, it tries to outline achievements in investigation of other pharmacological activities of these wild mushrooms. This review may encourage more research into biochemical properties and chemical analysis in a range of edible mushrooms growing wild in various climatic regions of the country. It might also be helpful for researchers from other countries that have a significant resource of wild mushrooms but have not yet launched research programs on collection, identification, recovery, and assessment of wild edible mushrooms.