Current Trends in Cardiology

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Commentary - Current Trends in Cardiology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 5

Understanding cardiac hypertrophy: causes, symptoms, and treatment options

Naranjan Dhalla*

Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Naranjan Dhalla
Department of Physiology & Pathophysiology
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg, Canada.

Received:28-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AACC-23-97808; Editor assigned: 01-May-2023,PreQC No. AACC-23-97808(PQ); Reviewed:15-May-2023,QC No. AACC-23-97808; Revised:19-May-2023, Manuscript No. AACC-23-97808(R); Published:26-May-2023,DOI:10.35841/aarrgs-5.6.128

Citation: Dhalla N. Understanding cardiac hypertrophy: causes, symptoms, and treatment options. J Cell Biol Metab. 2023;7(5):156

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Obsessive hypertrophy alludes to cardiovascular development in light of different horrible boosts, like myocardial ischemia, hypoxia, diabetes, and hypertension. The fundamental systems of obsessive hypertrophy incorporate mitochondrial brokenness, heart cell apoptosis, and responsive oxygen species (ROS) creation. ROS are metabolites of oxygen species in the body. In the organic express, a fitting measure of ROS is fundamental for cell endurance. In any case, in the neurotic express, the collection of ROS results in mitochondrial brokenness and energy digestion, in this way advancing a hypertrophic cycle. Catalase is the principal cancer prevention agent specialist in heart cells under physiological circumstances. Support of the powerful harmony among catalase and ROS in cells is vital for ROS level control and cardiovascular hypertrophy counteraction.


Autophagosome, Sicknesses, Cardiovascular hypertrophy.


The over the top aggregation of ROS obliterates cell homeostasis and causes mitochondrial brokenness, which prompts oxidative pressure. Conversely, autophagy can diminish oxidative harm and ROS levels by eliminating harmed organelles, like accumulated proteins and mitochondria. Autophagy is a cell-defensive cycle by which harmed cells are corrupted in an autophagosome-interceded debasement framework. Autophagy is engaged with the pathophysiological cycles of different sicknesses, like malignant growth and muscle infections. Amassing proof has uncovered that autophagy assumes a significant part in managing cardiovascular hypertrophy.[1].

Cardiac hypertrophy is a condition characterized by an abnormal enlargement or thickening of the heart muscle. This can occur as a result of various factors, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and genetic predisposition. The heart is a complex organ that pumps blood throughout the body. It consists of four chambers: the right and left atria, and the right and left ventricles. Each chamber has its own specific role in the pumping process, and the heart muscle must work in harmony to ensure efficient blood flow. However, when the heart muscle becomes enlarged or thickened, this can disrupt the normal pumping process and lead to a range of health problems. Cardiac hypertrophy can cause the heart muscle to become stiff and less able to expand and contract as needed, which can reduce blood flow and lead to heart failure There are two types of cardiac hypertrophy: physiological and pathological. Physiological hypertrophy occurs in response to exercise or pregnancy and is considered a normal adaptation of the heart muscle to increased demand. Pathological hypertrophy, on the other hand, occurs as a result of chronic stress on the heart muscle and is associated with a range of health problems [2].

Causes of Cardiac Hypertrophy:

High Blood Pressure: Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a leading cause of cardiac hypertrophy. When blood pressure is consistently high, the heart has to work harder to pump blood throughout the body. This increased workload can cause the heart muscle to thicken and become stiff, which can lead to heart failure. Heart Disease: Various forms of heart disease can also cause cardiac hypertrophy. Coronary artery disease, which occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked, can cause the heart muscle to thicken in an attempt to compensate for reduced blood flow. Cardiomyopathy, a condition that affects the heart muscle itself, can also cause hypertrophy. Genetic Predisposition: Some people may be more susceptible to developing cardiac hypertrophy due to genetic factors. Certain gene mutations have been linked to an increased risk of hypertrophy, and individuals with a family history of the condition may be more likely to develop it themselves [3,].

Diagnosis of Cardiac Hypertrophy:

Cardiac hypertrophy can be diagnosed through a range of tests, including: Echocardiogram: This non-invasive test uses sound waves to create images of the heart and can show if the heart muscle is abnormally thickened. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test records the electrical activity of the heart and can help identify irregular heart rhythms or other abnormalities. Cardiac MRI: This imaging test uses magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart and can show the thickness of the heart muscle [4,].

Treatment of Cardiac Hypertrophy:

The treatment of cardiac hypertrophy depends on the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as exercise, weight loss, and a healthy diet may be enough to reduce symptoms and prevent further enlargement of the heart muscle. If hypertension is the underlying cause, medication may be prescribed to help lower blood pressure. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves, or to remove excess tissue from the heart muscle [5].


Cardiac hypertrophy is a serious condition that can have significant impacts on heart health and overall well-being. It can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and genetic predisposition. Early diagnosis and treatment are important in preventing the condition from progressing and causing further damage to the heart. Lifestyle changes such as exercise, weight loss, and a healthy diet can help prevent cardiac hypertrophy, while medication, surgery, and other interventions may be necessary for those with more advanced cases. It is important to work with a healthcare provider to manage this condition and maintain heart health.



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