International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +44-1518-081136

Short Communication - International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology (2023) Volume 11, Issue 2


Roger Carvalho*

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom

*Corresponding Author:
Roger Carvalho
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom

Received: 02-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. IJPAZ-23-88246; Editor assigned: 04-Feb-2023, PreQC No. IJPAZ-23-88246(PQ); Reviewed: 18-Feb-2023, QC No. IJPAZ-23-88246; Revised: 21-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. IJPAZ-23-88246(R); Published: 28-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.35841/2320-9585-11.2.170

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology


Bryozoa, also known as moss animals, are a group of small, aquatic, sessile invertebrates found in oceans and freshwaters around the world. These creatures are easily recognizable by their distinctive, often intricate, colonial structures, formed by thousands of tiny, individual zooids. Bryozoans are colonial animals, meaning that they form large groups of genetically identical individuals called zooids. These zooids are connected by a shared soft tissue, known as the coenenchyme, and each one is responsible for a specific task such as feeding, reproduction, or protection. This division of labor within the colony allows bryozoans to efficiently perform multiple functions, making them highly successful and abundant in many aquatic habitats.

One of the most fascinating aspects of bryozoans is their diversity in form and function. From delicate lace-like colonies to dense, bush-like structures, bryozoans can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes, each adapted to a specific habitat and way of life. Some species even have specialized zooids equipped with long, retractable tentacles used for feeding, while others have evolved protective zooids to deter predators [1]. In terms of their ecological significance, bryozoans play an important role in shaping marine habitats. By creating complex structures and providing habitat for other species, they help to increase biodiversity in the areas where they live. Additionally, bryozoans are important indicators of environmental changes, as they are sensitive to changes in water chemistry and temperature. This makes them valuable tools for monitoring the health of aquatic ecosystems. Bryozoans also have a rich geological history, with fossils dating back to the early Paleozoic era. These fossils provide valuable insights into the evolution and diversity of marine invertebrates, and have contributed to our understanding of the earth's ancient oceans and their inhabitants [2].

Bryozoans have a unique reproductive system, with both sexual and asexual reproduction occurring within a colony [3]. Some zooids within the colony are specialized for reproduction and can produce both eggs and sperm. Fertilization usually occurs within the colony, with the resulting larvae settling on a suitable surface and forming a new colony. In addition to their reproductive system, bryozoans also have an interesting defense mechanism against predators. When threatened, some species can rapidly retract their soft tissue, leaving behind a hard, protective skeleton. This makes it difficult for predators to feed on the colony, and allows the bryozoans to escape harm. Bryozoans are also known for their ability to form large, dense colonies that can dominate large areas of the sea floor. These colonies can provide important habitats for a variety of other marine species, including fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. Some bryozoans have even been observed to form symbiotic relationships with other species, such as the sponge and hydrozoan associates [4].Despite their widespread distribution and ecological significance, bryozoans are often understudied and underappreciated. This is partly due to the difficulty in studying their biology, as many species live in deep waters and are difficult to collect and observe [5]. However, recent advances in technology and increased interest in these fascinating creatures are shedding new light on their biology and ecology, and helping us to better understand the important role they play in the marine world.

In summary, bryozoans are fascinating, complex creatures that have much to offer in terms of our understanding of marine biology and ecology. Whether you're interested in their unique life cycle, defensive mechanisms, or ecological impact, there is much to discover in the world of bryozoans. Bryozoans are fascinating creatures that play a significant role in marine ecosystems and the earth's geological history. Despite their small size and often overlooked presence, they are incredibly diverse and adaptable, making them an important component of the aquatic world. Whether you're a marine biologist, geologist, or just a curious observer, the world of bryozoans is definitely worth exploring.


  1. Egan, S., Thomas, T., and Kjelleberg, S., 2008. Unlocking the diversity and biotechnological potential of marine surface associated microbial communities. Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 11: 219-225.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Munday, P.L., Warner, R.R., Monro, K., Pandolfi, J. M., and Marshall, D.J., 2013. Predicting evolutionary responses to climate change in the sea. Ecol. Lett., 16: 1488-1500.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Holzer, A.S., Bartosova‐Sojkova, P., Born‐Torrijos, A., Lovy, A., Hartigan, A., and Fiala, I. 2018. The joint evolution of the Myxozoa and their alternate hosts: a cnidarian recipe for success and vast biodiversity. Mol. Ecol., 27: 1651-1666.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Suarez-Ulloa, V., Gonzalez-Romero, R., and Eirin-Lopez, J.M., 2015. Environmental epigenetics: a promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 98: 5-13.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. O'Dea, A., and Okamura, B., 2000. Intracolony variation in zooid size in cheilostome bryozoans as a new technique for investigating palaeoseasonality. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 162: 319-332.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App