Journal of Clinical Immunology Research

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Mini Review - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2022) Volume 5, Issue 3

Skin immunology: An overview of skin disease.

Harris Recardo*

Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Kofi Annan University of Guinea, Republic of Guinea

*Corresponding Author:
Harris Recardo
Department of Medicine
Division of Dermatology
Kofi Annan University of Guinea
Republic of Guinea
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 03-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-22-67213; Editor assigned: 06-Jun-2022, PreQC No. AACIR -22-67213(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jun-2022, QC No. AACIR -22-67213; Revised: 23-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-22-67213(R); Published: 25-Jun-2022, DOI:10.35841/aacir-5.3.112

Citation: Recardo H. Skin immunology: An overview of skin disease. J Clin Immunol. 2022;5(3):112

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Abstract

The skin is a complex organ that acts as a stage for a range of inflammatory processes, including infection immunity, tumour immunity, autoimmune, and allergies, in addition to providing a strong barrier against external shocks. A wide range of cells work together to create effective immune responses, which are launched by resident populations and change when new cell populations are recruited to the skin. The initiating signals, the characteristics of the infiltrating cell populations, and the cytokines produced (cytokines are secreted proteins that allow for cell–cell communication; usually refers to communication between immune–immune cells or stromal–immune cells) all influence the signs and symptoms of inflammation.

Keywords

Cytokines, Tumour immunity, Inflammatory processes

Introduction

Tissues at the host-environment interface, such as the skin, gut, and other mucosal surfaces, are the host's first line of defense against infections. The skin's barrier function is crucial, as seen by atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, and irritant contact dermatitis when this barrier is disrupted after an injury or in atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis, or irritant contact dermatitis. When the barrier is broken, the body's innate immune system is activated to defend it, a process that relies on the identification of both internal and exterior "danger signals" as the initial warning. Then, for definitive pathogen clearance, a delayed but more specific adaptive immune response may be necessary [1-2].

The skin is an arena where sterile inflammation, such as tumour immunity, allergies, and autoimmune responses, may engage in disease in addition to providing protection against invading microorganisms. Tumor immunity is faulty in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients, but it is co-opted during imiquimod treatment of various skin malignancies and warts. When directed against harmless foreign elements, such as in allergic contact dermatitis, allergic responses, which presumably developed to protect against parasite invasion, can cause disease. Autoimmunity causes a wide spectrum of skin disorders, including vitiligo, lupus, psoriasis, and other diseases, and is thought to be produced by antipathogen or antitumor immunity directed against oneself [3].

Autoimmune diseases - conditions in which the body's immune system destroys its own healthy tissues - cause the human body to react in a variety of ways. An autoimmune disease can impact a range of body parts, including joints, muscles, and organs, depending on the condition you have. The skin is frequently affected by autoimmune illnesses.

There are many different forms of autoimmune skin disorders, and each one is distinct in terms of the symptoms it produces, the reasons and risk factors it has, and how it is identified and treated. Here's all you need to know about the different forms of autoimmune skin diseases, as well as their symptoms, causes, and treatments.

Autoimmune Skin Conditions: What Are They and How Do They Affect You?

Autoimmune skin diseases are caused by the immune system attacking healthy skin cells and come in a variety of forms [4].

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system becomes overactive, causing skin cell development to accelerate. Layers of crimson plaques will form, which will be covered with flaky, silver-white patches of dead skin known as scales.

Scleroderma

Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that causes the skin to thicken and harden. All types of bodily tissues are connected, supported, and separated by connective tissue. Scleroderma can be regional or systemic in nature.

Skin Lupus

Cutaneous lupus, commonly known as skin lupus, is an autoimmune skin disorder in which the immune system assaults and damages healthy skin cells. Redness, itching, discomfort, and scarring are some of the skin's symptoms.

Dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis is an autoimmune condition that affects the muscles as well as the skin. Polymyositis, another autoimmune illness that causes muscle weakness, pain, and stiffness, is linked to it. Shortness of breath and difficulty swallowing are common symptoms of certain muscular diseases.

Behcet's Disease

Behcet's illness is an uncommon blood vessel ailment that affects people all over the world. Mouth sores, eye irritation, skin rashes, and vaginal lesions are all symptoms of the illness.

Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid

Ocular Cicatricial Pemphigoid (OCP) is an autoimmune illness that affects the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, particularly the conjunctiva [5].

Pemphigus

Pemphigus is an autoimmune skin disorder that generates pus-filled blisters or pimples. Blisters most commonly form on the skin, although they can also appear in the mucous membranes. Blisters from Pemphigus can be painful, large, and irritating.

Bullous Epidermolysis

Epidermolysis bullosa comes in a variety of types, but only one is autoimmune: Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita (EBA) [5]. All kinds of the disease cause fluid-filled blisters to grow in response to traumas that would otherwise go unnoticed.

Pemphigoid Bullous

Bullous pemphigoid is an uncommon autoimmune skin disorder characterised by enormous, fluid blisters. Blisters commonly appear on the arms, legs, torso, and inside the mouth [5].

References

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