Virology Research Journal

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +44-7360-538437

Rapid Communication - Virology Research Journal (2022) Volume 6, Issue 2

Significant function of spike proteins of viral envelope in corona virus.

Kasturi Vena*

Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era Deemed to be University, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India

*Corresponding Author:

Kasturi Vena
Department of Biotechnology
Graphic Era Deemed to be University
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received: 21-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AAVRJ-22-57062; Editor assigned: 24-Feb-2022, PreQC No. AAVRJ-22-57062(PQ); Reviewed: 10-March-2022, QC No. AAVRJ-22-57062; Revised: 12-March-2022, Manuscript No. AAVRJ-22-57062(R); Published: 26-March-2022, DOI:10.35841/AAVRJ-6.2.109

Citation: Vena K. Significant function of spike proteins of viral envelope in corona virus. Virol Res J. 2022;6(2):109

Visit for more related articles at Virology Research Journal


The coronavirus spike protein may be a multifunctional atomic machine that intervenes coronavirus section into has cells. It to begin with ties to a receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit and after that wires viral and have layers through its S2 subunit. Two spaces in S1 from diverse coronaviruses recognize an assortment of have receptors, driving to viral connection. The spike protein exists in two fundamentally particular conformations, perfusion and post fusion. The move from perfusion to post fusion adaptation of the spike protein must be activated, driving to layer combination.


Coronavirus spike protein, Virus origin, Virus evolution, Receptor binding


Coronaviruses posture genuine wellbeing dangers to people and other creatures. In common, coronaviruses cause broad respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central apprehensive framework infections in people and other creatures, debilitating human wellbeing and causing financial misfortune. Coronaviruses are competent of adjusting to unused situations through transformation and recombination with relative ease and consequently are modified to change have run and tissue tropism effectively. Hence, wellbeing dangers from coronaviruses are steady and long-term. Understanding the virology of coronaviruses and controlling their spread have imperative suggestions for worldwide wellbeing and financial solidness.

Among them, alpha-and betacoronaviruses contaminate warm blooded creatures, gammacoronaviruses contaminate avian species, and deltacoronaviruses contaminate both mammalian and avian species. Agent alphacoronaviruses incorporate human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), PEDV, and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV). Agent betacoronaviruses incorporate SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, bat coronavirus HKU4, mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV), bovine coronavirus (BCoV), and human coronavirus OC43. Agent gamma-and deltacoronaviruses incorporate avian irresistible bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) and porcine deltacoronavirus (PdCV), separately. Coronaviruses are huge, encompassed, positive-stranded RNA infections. The coronavirus spike contains three portions: an expansive ectodomain, a single-pass transmembrane stay, and a brief intracellular tail. The ectodomain comprises of a receptor-binding subunit S1 and a membrane-fusion subunit S2. Electron microscopy ponders uncovered that the spike may be a clove-shaped trimer with three S1 heads and a trimeric S2 stalk. Amid infection section, S1 ties to a receptor on the have cell surface for viral connection, and S2 wires the have and viral layers, permitting viral genomes to enter have cells. Receptor authoritative and layer fusion are the introductory and basic steps within the coronavirus disease cycle; they moreover serve as essential targets for human developments. In this article, I survey the structure and work of coronavirus spikes and talk about their advancement [1].

The corona viral genome encodes four major basic proteins: the spike (S) protein, nucleocapsid (N) protein, film (M) protein, and the envelope (E) protein, all of which are required to create a fundamentally total viral molecule. More as of late, be that as it may, it has ended up clear that a few CoVs don't require the complete gathering of auxiliary proteins to make a total, irresistible virion, proposing that a few auxiliary proteins may well be superfluous or that these CoVs might encode extra proteins with covering compensatory capacities. Exclusively, each protein fundamentally plays a part within the structure of the infection molecule, but they are moreover included in other perspectives of the replication cycle [2]. The S protein intervenes connection of the infection to the have cell surface receptors and ensuing combination between the viral and have cell films to encourage viral section into the have cell [3]. In a few CoVs, the expression of S at the cell layer can moreover intercede cell-cell combination between contaminated and adjoining, uninfected cells. This arrangement of mammoth, multinucleated cells, or syncytia, has been proposed as a procedure to permit coordinate spreading of the infection between cells, subverting virus-neutralising antibodies.

Not at all like the other major auxiliary proteins, N is the as it were protein that capacities fundamentally to tie to the CoV RNA genome, making up the nucleocapsid. In spite of the fact that N is to a great extent included in forms relating to the viral genome, it is additionally included in other angles of the CoV replication cycle and the have cellular reaction to viral disease. Interests, localisation of N to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi locale has proposed a work for it in gathering and budding. In any case, temporal expression of N was appeared to significantly increment the generation of virus-like particles (VLPs) in a few CoVs, recommending that it might not be required for envelope arrangement, but for total virion arrangement instep [4,5].


  1. Yang Y, Liu C.Two mutations were critical for bat-to-human transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol. 2015;89(17):9119-23.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Qian Z, Dominguez SR, Holmes KV. Role of the spike glycoprotein of human Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in virus entry and syncytia formation. PLOS ONE. 2013;8(10):e76469.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Xiao X, Chakraborti S. The SARS-CoV S glycoprotein: expression and functional characterization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312(4):1159-64.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Ontiveros E. Enhanced virulence mediated by the murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM, is associated with a glycine at residue 310 of the spike glycoprotein. J Virol. 2003;77(19):10260-69.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Eifart P, Ludwig K, Bottcher C, et al. Role of endocytosis and low pH in murine hepatitis virus strain A59 cell entry. J Virol. 2007;81(19):10758-68.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref



Get the App

Vizag Tech Summit