Hematology and Blood Disorders

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Mini Review - Hematology and Blood Disorders (2023) Volume 6, Issue 1

Sickle cell anemia and its acute complications in patients

Ibrahim Khan*

Department of Medicine,University of Beirut, Lebanon

*Corresponding Author:
Ibrahim Khan
Department of Medicine
University of Beirut

Received:31-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AAHBD-23-88553; Editor assigned:02-Feb-2023, PreQC No. AAHBD-23-88553(PQ); Reviewed:16-Feb-2023, QC No. AAHBD-23-88553; Revised:21-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AAHBD-23-88553(R); Published:28-Feb-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aahbd-6.1.135

Citation: Khan I. Sickle cell anemia and its acute complications in patients. Hematol Blood Disord. 2023;6(1):135

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Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of the globin chains that causes hemolysis and chronic organ damage. Sickle cell anemia is the most widely recognized type of sickle cell disease (SCD), with a long lasting hardship of hemolytic weakness requiring blood transfusions, pain crises, and organ damage. Starting from the primary portrayal of the unpredictable sickle-shaped red blood cells (RBC) over a long time back, how we might interpret the illness has developed massively. On-going advances in the field, all the more so inside the most recent thirty years, have mitigated side effects for endless patients, particularly in major league salary nations. This movement audits the pathophysiology, show, entanglements, determination, and therapy of sickle cell anemia and furthermore features the job of the interprofessional group in the administration of these patients.


Sickle cell anemia, Acute chest syndrome, Acute stroke


Sickle cell anemia is portrayed by two significant parts: Hemolysis and vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). The imperfection in the beta-globin quality makes the sickle hemoglobin (HbS) particle powerless to changing over into unbending, extended polymers in a deoxygenated state. The sickling system is repetitive at first, where sickle erythrocytes sway between the typical biconcave shape and the strange bow shape (gained under low oxygen tension). Nonetheless, there comes when the change becomes irreversible, and the sickle erythrocytes foster an extremely durable sickle shape expanding the gamble for hemolysis and vaso-occlusive crises. All variations of sickle cell disease share the equivalent pathophysiology prompting polymerization of the HbS part [1].

Various variables innate to sickle erythrocytes, similar to low fondness of HbS to oxygen, physiologically high 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate, and expanded sphingokinase-1 movement, lead to deoxygenation, which advances polymerization of HbS. Moreover, high convergence of HbS, unusual movement of Gados channel prompting drying out, and rehashed harm to red cell (RBC) layer additionally increase the risk of polymerization of HbS [2].

Acute complications in patients with sickle cell anemia

Acute chest syndrome is the most widely recognized complexity of sickle cell anemia. It is additionally the most well-known reason for death and the second most normal cause of hospital admission. A patient can either give acute chest syndrome or may develop it during hospitalization for some other explanation. Consequently, it is judicious to screen all patients with sickle cell anemia owned up to the emergency clinic for acute chest syndrome. It is important to recognize acute chest syndrome early and act upon it to prevent respiratory failure [3].

Stroke is the most pulverizing inconvenience of sickle cell anemia. Since the coming of transcranial doppler (TCD) and the foundation of essential counteraction programs, the occurrence of stroke has gone down in patients with sickle cell anemia. Without even a trace of essential counteraction, ~10% of youngsters experience the ill effects of unmistakable stroke, and roughly 20 to 35% have quiet cerebral infarcts. Transcranial doppler is not useful for adults [4].

Aplastic crises are typically hastened by parvovirus B-19 and are characterized as a quick drop in Hb no less than 3 to 6 gm/dL underneath the pattern. Patients present with severe fatigue, anemia, shortness of breath, and even syncope. Blood counts show seriously low hemoglobin with close missing reticulocytes. Bone marrow biopsy shows capture in the favorable to normoblast stage in patients with intense parvovirus contaminations. Intense intrahepatic cholestasis gives unexpected beginning right upper quadrant torment. Actual test shows deteriorating jaundice, expanding and delicate liver, and earth shaded stools. Labs show exceptionally high bilirubin levels, raised antacid phosphatase, and coagulopathy. The hemolysis boundaries might be typical. Acute intrahepatic cholestasis is a health related crisis [5].

Chronic pain management in sickle cell anemia patients focuses around the protected and sufficient utilization of torment prescriptions, especially narcotics. An extensive evaluation of the patient's infirmity, the sort and portions of torment medication required controlling agony, and the utilitarian results of utilizing these prescriptions are made at each experience. The cycle includes coordinated effort with numerous claims to fame, similar to psychiatry, social work, and so forth, to manage the right aggravation medication in the legitimate portions.


Sickle cell anemia is a systemic disorder that influences the whole body. The sickness not just appears with actual side effects (pain crises, organ damage, etc.) yet additionally has various psycho-social ramifications. Most patients with sickle cell paleness have a place with the African-American people group and a minority to Hispanic and different networks, which makes them inclined to specific biases. Also, the appeal for narcotics to oversee constant agony makes what is happening considerably seriously testing. Regardless of suppliers should keep their innate bias while really focusing on a patient with sickle cell anemia, working cooperatively as an interprofessional group. Practically all claims to fame should be engaged with overseeing patients with sickle cell anemia. Nonetheless, the hematology group committed to dealing with sickle cell anemia patients should be the essential doctors for these patients.


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