Journal of Invasive and Non-Invasive Cardiology

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Mini Review - Journal of Invasive and Non-Invasive Cardiology (2022) Volume 5, Issue 1

Representation of ventricular septal and its defects of intact ventricular septum and arteries.

Jean Karam* 

Department of Cardiology, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France

Corresponding Author:
Jean Karam
Department of Cardiology
Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France

Received: 05-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAINIC-22-52561; Editor assigned: 06-Jan-2022, PreQC No. AAINIC-22-52561(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jan-2022, QC No AAINIC-22-52561; Revised: 24-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AAINIC-22-52561(R); Published: 31-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.35841/aainic-5.1.102

Citation:Karam J. Representation of ventricular septal and its defects of intact ventricular septum and arteries. J Invasive Noninvasive Cardiol. 2022; 5(1):102.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Invasive and Non-Invasive Cardiology


Fourteen youngsters 18 hours to 32 days old with interpretation of the extraordinary supply routes (TGA) and practically unblemished ventricular septum (IVS) went through blood vessel switch tasks under profound hypothermic circulatory capture. Preoperative left ventricular to right ventricular pinnacle systolic strain proportions went from 0.7 to 1.0 (mean, 0.92), and the echocardiogram showed a midway situated ventricular septum in 10 patients and a rightward dislodged ventricular septum in 4. One patient passed on twelve hours after activity. Postoperative confusions included draining from the left coronary course pneumonic conduit anastomosis (1 patient), stenosis of the aspiratory supply route aorta anastomosis requiring reoperation (2 patients), transient ST portion and T wave anomalies steady with ischemia, and improvement of neurotic Q waves reminiscent of clinically quiet localized necrosis. The limit of the passed on ventricle in a child to successfully assume control over the foundational flow was obviously illustrated. A more drawn out follow-up period is expected to evaluate late ventricular capacity, coronary ostial development, development of the aorta-aspiratory course anastomosis, late aortic valve (physical pneumonic valve) work before conclusive proposals about the prevalence of the blood vessel switch activity in youngsters with TGA in addition to IVS can be planned.


Ventricular Septal, Cardiology, Arteries, Unblemished ventricular septum (IVS).


The pneumonic valve is situated between the right ventricle and the aspiratory supply route, which conveys blood to the lungs. Ordinarily, when the right ventricle gets, the aspiratory valve opens and oxygen-helpless blood streams out into the pneumonic vein and on to the lungs for oxygen. In a child with aspiratory atresia, the pneumonic valve doesn't open. Oxygen-helpless blood needs to track down a backup way to go to arrive at the lungs.

Before birth, blood streaming into the right half of the heart can pass into the left side through an opening between the upper offices of the heart called a patent foramen ovale. The oxygenhelpless blood blends in with oxygen-rich blood prior to being siphoned out to the body through the aorta. Upon entering the world, the foramen ovale generally closes however it might remain open in children with pneumonic atresia [1].

A portion of this blended blood can arrive at the lungs through a brief association between the aorta and the aspiratory conduit known as the ductus arteriosus. A new-brought into the world with pneumonic atresia relies upon this association with get the oxygen expected to get by. Following birth, the ductus arteriosus ordinarily closes; in any case, a drug called prostaglandins (PGE) can be utilized to keep the ductus arteriosus open.

Cause and prevalence

Aspiratory atresia with flawless ventricular septum is an uncommon intrinsic heart imperfection. It happens at a pace of short of what one for each 10,000 live births. This imperfection happens during the initial two months of pregnancy when the fetal heart neglects to grow accurately. The reason is ordinarily obscure [2].


Pneumonic atresia with flawless ventricular septum can be distinguished during pregnancy through a routine fetal echocardiogram (ultrasound of the fetal heart). A conclusion during pregnancy empowers your family and your medical care group to prepare for the specific therapy and cardiovascular mastery your child will require upon entering the world, advancing results.

At times, the condition isn't analyzed until after the child is conceived. Side effects in an infant might include:

• Somewhat blue colour to the skin, lips and nails (cyanosis)

or fair skin, showing an absence of oxygen in the blood

• Trouble breathing or fast relaxing

• Exhaustion

• Damp skin

• Taking care of issues

Treatment is needed after birth to further develop blood stream to the lungs and meet the child's oxygen needs. A drug to forestall the conclusion of the ductus arteriosus, called prostaglandins (PGE), is begun when the child is conceived. This prescription empowers blood to keep on streaming to the lungs for oxygen until a more long-lasting treatment still up in the air [3].

Various variables are thought about to choose the sort and timing of careful or catheter-based intercession in the new-conceived period. A portion of these variables incorporate the size of the right ventricle, the size of the tricuspid valve, any presence of coronary supply route anomalies or the presence of other related heart surrenders [4].

Post pregnancy cares team

Contingent upon the seriousness of the condition, your child's post pregnancy care group might include:

• A neonatologist

• A pediatric cardiologist

• A pediatric inherent heart specialist

• A pediatric cardiovascular anaesthesiologist

• A pediatric cardiovascular intensives'

Careful technique

Profound hypothermic circulatory capture was utilized for all youngsters. Following middle Sternotomy, cardiopulmonary detour was founded by cannulation of the distal rising aorta and situation of a solitary venous cannula through the right atrial member. Through a hotness exchanger mediated on cardiopulmonary detour, center cooling was done with cold (15°C) perfusion until the nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures arrived at 20°C. During center cooling, the ductus arteriosus was isolated and both the left and right aspiratory supply routes were taken apart past their purpose in branrhing. At 20°C the aorta was braced, cardioplegic arrangement was implanted, and cardiopulmonary detour was halted. The term of circulatory capture went from 47 to 64 minutes [5].

The right atrial cannula was then eliminated. In those patients who had an inflatable atrial septostomy, the. Atrial septa1 deformity was shut. Were examined and the destinations where the left and right coronary conduits were to be embedded on the aspiratory vein were set apart by reference join. During circulatory capture, the aorta was cut across around 1 cm distal to the coronary courses and the vitally aspiratory supply route was separated in its mid portion. In the children, we experienced little inconsistency between the spans of the incredible conduits. The left and right coronary Ostia were extracted utilizing either a button of aortic divider or a section of aortic divider reaching out from the edge of the aortotomy entry point to the foundation of the coronary sinus.

We made sure to incorporate the biggest conceivable section of aortic divider around the coronary ostium. A comparable oval portion of pneumonic blood vessel divider (recently stamped) was then extracted, and the coronary veins were stitched to the aspiratory course utilizing a consistent 7-0 polydioxanone (PDS) stitch material. Then, the distal aspiratory course was carried front to the rising aorta (Lecompte move), and the proximal pneumonic supply route was anastomosed to the distal aorta utilizing a constant 6-0 PDS stitch. Now in the activity, the right atrial cannula was supplanted and cardiopulmonary detour was restarted. During rewarming, the destinations of explanation of the coronary veins were fixed utilizing either a fix of roundabout Gore-Tex or a fragment of pericardium. At last, the proximal aorta was stitched straightforwardly to the distal pneumonic vein with a ceaseless 6-0 PDS stitch. At a rectal temperature of 36"C, cardiopulmonary detour was ceased.


  1. Yacoub M, Radley-Smith R, Maclaurin R. Two-stage operation for anatomical correction of transposition of the great arteries with intact interventricular septum. The Lancet. 1977;309(8025):1275-8.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Lecompte Y, Neveux JY, Leca F, et al. Reconstruction of the pulmonary outflow tract without prosthetic conduit. J thoracic cardiovascul surg. 1982;84(5):727-33.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Castaneda AR, Norwood WI, Jonas RA, et al. Transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum: anatomical repair in the neonate. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 1984;38(5):438-43.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Bano-Rodrigo A, Quero-Jimenez M, Moreno-Granado F, et al. Wall thickness of ventricular chambers in transposition of the great arteries: surgical implications. J Thoracic Cardiovascular Surg 1980;79(4):592-7.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. de la Riviere AB, Quaegebeur JM, Hennis PJ, et al. Growth of an aorta-coronary anastomosis: an experimental study in pigs. J Thoracic Cardiovascul Surg. 1983;86(3):393-9.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App