Short Communication - Journal of Clinical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2
Quantifying drugs in blood: Methods and importance for clinical research and practice.Yaping Liam*
College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China
- *Corresponding Author:
- Yaping Liam
College of Pharmaceutical Science
Zhejiang University of Technology
Received: 28-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AACBC-22-97774; Editor assigned: 29-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AACBC-22-97774(PQ); Reviewed: 13-Apr-2023, QC No. AACBC-22-97774; Revised: 18-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AACBC-22-97774(R); Published: 24-Apr-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacbc-7.2.144
Citation: Liam Y. Quantifying drugs in blood: Methods and importance for clinical research and practice. J Clin Bioanal Chem. 2023;7(2):144
Quantifying drugs in blood is a critical step in many aspects of clinical research and medical practice. It is important to determine the concentration of a drug in a patient's bloodstream to ensure that the drug is being administered at the correct dose and that it is reaching its intended target. In this article, we will explore the methods used to quantify drugs in blood and the importance of accurate drug concentration measurements. One of the most common methods used to quantify drugs in blood is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This technique involves separating the drug from other components in the blood using chromatography, followed by detection and quantification of the drug using mass spectrometry. LC-MS is a highly sensitive and specific method, capable of detecting very low concentrations of drugs in blood. It is also capable of detecting a wide range of drugs, making it a versatile tool for drug quantification in clinical research and practice .
Another method commonly used to quantify drugs in blood is immunoassay. Immunoassay uses antibodies that specifically bind to the drug of interest, allowing for its detection and quantification. There are different types of immunoassays available, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). These methods are relatively fast and can be performed on a large scale, making them useful for screening large numbers of samples. However, they are generally less sensitive and specific than LC-MS and may be subject to interference from other compounds in the blood .
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is another method used to quantify drugs in blood. This technique involves separating the drug from other components in the blood using gas chromatography, followed by detection and quantification of the drug using mass spectrometry. GC-MS is particularly useful for measuring the concentration of drugs that are volatile or have a low molecular weight. However, it is not as widely used as LC-MS in clinical research and practice .
The accuracy of drug concentration measurements is critical for ensuring the safety and efficacy of drug therapy. Inaccurate drug concentration measurements can lead to underdosing or overdosing of patients, which can have serious consequences. For example, underdosing may result in the drug not having its intended therapeutic effect, while overdosing may lead to toxicity and adverse side effects. There are several factors that can affect the accuracy of drug concentration measurements in blood. One of the most important factors is the quality of the sample collection and handling. Samples should be collected and processed under controlled conditions to minimize variability and ensure accurate drug concentration measurements. In addition, the type of sample used for drug quantification can also affect the accuracy of the measurement. For example, plasma samples may be preferred over serum samples, as they contain fewer proteins and are less likely to cause interference in the assay .
Another important factor to consider when quantifying drugs in blood is the pharmacokinetics of the drug. The pharmacokinetics of a drug refers to how the drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of a drug is important for interpreting drug concentration measurements and determining the appropriate dose for a patient. For example, drugs that are rapidly metabolized may require more frequent dosing to maintain therapeutic levels in the blood. Quantifying drugs in blood is a critical step in many aspects of clinical research and medical practice. The choice of method depends on the specific requirements of the application, including sensitivity, specificity, and accessibility. Researchers and clinicians should be aware of the various factors that can affect the accuracy of drug concentration measurements and take appropriate steps to minimize their impact. Accurate drug concentration measurements are essential for ensuring the safety and efficacy of drug therapy and improving patient outcomes .
- Ascoli CA, Aggeler B. Overlooked benefits of using polyclonal antibodies. Biotechniques. 2018;65(3):127-36.
- Watanabe E, Kanzaki Y, Tokumoto H, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a polyclonal antibody for the detection of the insecticide fenitrothion. Evaluation of antiserum and application to the analysis of water samples. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(1):53-8.
- Mhadhbi H, Ben-Rejeb S, Cleroux C, et al. Generation and characterization of polyclonal antibodies against microcystins application to immunoassays and immunoaffinity sample preparation prior to analysis by liquid chromatography and UV detection. Talanta. 2006;70(2):225-35.
- Zhan X, Xi T, Zhou P. Indirect competitive immunoassay for mercury ion determination using polyclonal antibody against the Hg-GSH complex. Environ Forensics. 2013;14(2):103-8.
- Kumar A, Pathak RK, Gupta SM, et al., Systems biology for smart crops and agricultural innovation: filling the gaps between genotype and phenotype for complex traits linked with robust agricultural productivity and sustainability. OMICS J Integr Biol. 2015;19(10):581-601.