Virology Research Journal

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Opinion Article - Virology Research Journal (2023) Volume 7, Issue 1

Presence of clinically important enteric viruses in water samples and its environmental conditions

Jing Yang*

Animal Health Department, Virological Unit, Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of the South, Portici, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Jing Yang
Animal Health Department, Virological Unit
Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of the South, Portici, Italy

Received: 26-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AAVRJ-23-87054; Editor assigned: 28-Dec-2022, PreQC No. AAVRJ-23-87054 (PQ); Reviewed: 11-Jan-2023, QC No. AAVRJ-23-87054; Revised: 16-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AAVRJ-23-87054 (R); Published: 23-Jan-2023, DOI:10.35841/AAVRJ-7.1.131

Citation: Yang J. Presence of clinically important enteric viruses in water samples and its environmental conditions. Virol Res J. 2023;7(1):131

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Waterborne enteric infections, viral infection


Enteric viruses may be show normally in aquatic environments or, more commonly, are presented through human exercises such as spilling sewage and septic frameworks, urban runoff, agrarian runoff, and, within the case of estuarine and marine waters, sewage outfall and vessel wastewater release. Over 100 sorts of pathogenic infections are excreted in human and creature squanders. These viruses can be transported within the environment through groundwater, estuarine water, seawater, waterways, pressurized canned products transmitted from sewage treatment plants, insulant treated water, drinking water, and private wells that get treated or untreated wastewater either straightforwardly or by implication [1]. These infections, collectively known as enteric infections, more often than not are transmitted through the fecaloral course and fundamentally taint and imitate within the gastrointestinal tract of the host. Enteric viruses are shed in extremely tall numbers within the feces of contaminated people, ordinarily between 105 and 1011 infection particles per gram of stool. Commonly considered bunches of enteric infections have a place to the families Picornaviridae (polioviruses, enteroviruses, coxsakieviruses, hepatitis A infection, and echoviruses), Adenoviridae (adenoviruses), Caliciviridae (noroviruses, caliciviruses, astroviruses, and little round-structured infections), and Reoviridae (reoviruses and rotaviruses). Enteric infection bunches that are considered to be developing waterborne pathogens, based on their cellular and atomic structures that make them safe to current water treatment forms, incorporate circoviruses (comprising of torque tenovirus and torque tenovirus-like infection; these are nonenveloped infections with single-stranded circular DNA and are safe to warm inactivation), picobirnaviridae (little nonenveloped infections with bisegmented double-stranded RNA that are amazingly safe to UV light inactivation), parvoviruses (the littlest known enteric infections, with singlestranded RNA and tall warm resistance), and polyomaviruses (counting JC infection, BK infection, and simian infection 40; these are nonenveloped double-stranded DNA infections that have been found to be exceptionally warm steady but are less safe to chlorination than enteroviruses).

Although enteric virus infections are associated basically with diarrhea and self-limiting gastroenteritis in people, they may moreover cause respiratory contaminations, conjunctivitis, hepatitis, and maladies that have tall mortality rates, such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and loss of motion in immunocompromised people. In expansion, a few enteric infections have been connected to incessant diseases such as myocarditis and insulin-dependent diabetes. Enteric infection contaminations in creatures such as cattle and swine are regularly asymptomatic but can lead to fetus removal, neurological disarranges, and mortality. Enteric infections can be transmitted by nourishment, water, fomites, and human contact [2]. In expansion to causing intense maladies, they are of open wellbeing concern due to their moo irresistible dosage. For case, the probability of infection from exposure to one rotavirus is 31%, and no more than 1 PFU is required to cause contamination in 1% of sound grown-ups with no counter acting agent to the infection. The chance of disease when devouring infections in drinking water is 10- to 10,000- fold more noteworthy than that for pathogenic microscopic organisms at comparable exposures. Since of the potential for defilement from a assortment of sources, enteric infections in water are of specific concern. Enteric infections have been confined from and connected to episodes beginning from sullied drinking water sources, recreational waters (e.g., waters for swimming, canoeing, surfing, etc.), urban streams, and shellfish collected from sullied waters. Nonpotable water, such as seawater, is additionally critical; enteric infections are able to persist for amplified periods within the marine environment, which increments the likelihood of human introduction by recreational contact and amassing in shellfish. Since shellfish are channel feeders, the concentration of infections gathered in their eatable tissues may be much higher than that within the encompassing water. Utilization of shellfish collected from enteric virus-contaminated waters frequently has driven to human outbreaks [3].

Infectious enteric infections have been separated from oceanic situations that are in compliance with bacterial marker guidelines, and there have been a few virus-related episodes connected to ingestion of waters that met fecal coliform measures. One of the major disadvantages in utilizing fecal coliform microscopic organisms and other conventional pointers (e.g., enterococci) is that these markers may be found in both human and creature feces and actually in soils. Moreover, they may regrow within the environment after being excreted from their host [4,5]. The ability to identify the overwhelming sources of fecal toxins in sea-going situations has ended up progressively imperative in water quality administration and remediation; in any case, following the have source of bacterial markers in natural waters is outlandish without difficult and broad tests such as different antimicrobial resistance profiling and ribotypin. Complicating things, thinks about have appeared that in coastal and marine waters conventional bacterial pointers by and large kick the bucket off rapidly compared to viruses and protozoa.

Viral pathogens, since of their host specificity, have been recommended as one of the foremost promising apparatuses to decide the sources of fecal contaminants in oceanic situations and may be utilized in conjunction with bacterial pointers to evaluate water quality and progress open wellbeing observation. Pathogenic infections are for the most part more safe than bacterial markers amid customary wastewater treatment such as chlorination and filtration and are able to resist lipid solvents. Within the environment, enteric infections can survive beneath a wide pH run (pH 3 to 10) and for amplified periods at moo temperatures. Finally, since viruses have an obligate have necessity, there's no potential for regrowth within the environment. In common, enteric infections appear awesome potential to be utilized as water quality markers to evaluate the dangers related with irresistible infection transmission as well as to distinguish the overwhelming source of fecal defilement in waters. Here we show data on the part of enteric infections as pathogens of both people and other creatures and the dangers displayed from waterborne presentation. Specific discussions are restricted to the enterovirus and adenovirus bunches, which are among the foremost well considered in terms of waterborne defilement. The potential for these host-specific pathogens to be utilized as an extra apparatus in water quality ponders and fecal source following is additionally highlighted. Enteric infections speak to an assorted bunch. Most of the mammalian infections, such as picornaviruses, rotaviruses, and noroviruses, are nonenveloped RNA infections, whereas adenoviruses and polyomaviruses (for which transmission by means of the fecal-oral course has however to be demonstrated) are the as it were bunches with double-stranded DNA.


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