Journal of Clinical Immunology Research

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Editorial - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2021) Volume 4, Issue 5

Plasma Fatty Acids Associate with Gut Microbial Composition in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

Xiang Kong*

Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway

*Corresponding Author:
Xiang Kong
Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway
E-mail: [email protected]

Accepted on October 11, 2021

Citation: Kong X. Plasma Fatty Acids Associate with Gut Microbial Composition in Common Variable Immunodeficiency. Clin Immunol Res. 2021;4(5):1-2.

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Fatty acid (FA) abnormalities are determined in a number of inflammatory problems and have been associated to disturbed intestine microbiota. Patients with frequent variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have inflammatory issues related with altered intestine microbial composition. We hypothesized that there is an altered FA profile in CVID patients, associated to intestine microbial dysbiosis. Fatty acids (FAs), each free and as section of complicated lipids, play a quantity of key roles in metabolism and cell functions. They represent a principal element of mobile membranes; act as precursors of extracellular signaling molecules, and affect membrane-derived intracellular signaling pathways. These elements are essential for human fitness and disorder risk, and several research guide a function for FAs in a range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) has a prevalence of 1:25 000 to 1:50 0000 in Caucasians and is the most frequent symptomatic principal immunodeficiency in adults. Approximately 10% of CVID sufferers have a monogenic cause, whereas the final sufferers have an extra complicated sample of inheritance involving a couple of genetic and environmental factors. CVID includes a heterogeneous crew of sufferers characterised by way of hypogammaglobulinemia, especially decreased immunoglobulin G (IgG), which outcomes in recurrent infections with capsulated micro-organism in the respiratory tract. In addition, a massive percentage of the sufferers (70–80%) have non-infectious autoimmune and/or inflammatory complications, such as splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, enteropathy, granulomas and lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. The etiology of these inflammatory and autoimmune problems is generally unknown, however we have earlier proven an affiliation with altered intestine microbial composition and blood lipids. Circulating FAs are additionally used as biomarkers of dietary FA consumption in epidemiological studies, regularly in relation to inflammatory or cardiometabolic outcomes. However, collecting proof helps intestine microbiota as a modifier of the dietary influence on the host metabolic state, inclusive of FA metabolism, linking intestine microbiota to metabolic and inflammatory diseases.

CVID was defined as decreased serum levels of IgG, in addition to IgA and/or IgM via a minimal of two standard deviations beneath the mean for age, and exclusion of different motives of hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID subgroups had been categorized as “complications” (i.e., presence of one or extra of the following complications: splenomegaly, lymphoid hyperplasia, granulomas, enteropathy, organ-specific autoimmunity, autoimmune cytopenia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, nodular regenerative hyperplasia, or lymphoma) or as “infection only” (i.e., solely recurrent bacterial infections in the respiratory tract and absence of the above cited complications), based totally on beforehand described criteria. Importantly, none of the sufferers in the “infection only” crew had on-going acute contamination as this was once an exclusion criterion. CVID enteropathy was once described as chronic diarrhea after exclusion of gastrointestinal infection.

The composition of FA was analyzed in EDTA-plasma, as previously described. FA concentrations are expressed as percentages of total FAs by weight (wt %). The omega 3 index was defined as the sum of EPA and DHA, expressed as a percentage of the total FA content. The anti-inflammatory index was defined as the sum of EPA (C20:5n-3), DGLA (C20:3n-6), DHA (C22:6n-3), and DPA (C22:5n-3), divided on ARA (C20:4n-6), multiplied with 100 as previously described.

Several studies, each in mice and humans, suggest that the intestine microbiota ought to play a position in lipid metabolism and lipid degrees in blood and tissues. Although numerous intervention research have been performed to examine the affect of dietary PUFAs, SFAs, and MUFAs on intestine microbiota composition, research on the relationship between intestine microbiota and blood PUFAs and MUFAs are alternatively scarce each in wholesome topics and in sickness states. In the existing study, Desulfovibrionaceae in stools correlated negatively with plasma proportions of n-3 PUFAs and EPA and positively with MUFAs. This bacterial household has until now been proven to be decreased in CVID and is a phase of the CVID dysbiosis index, and even though the implication of this discovering is at existing unclear, the negative association between n-3 PUFAs and fantastic affiliation with MUFAs advantage similarly investigation.

In conclusion, we found a potentially unfavourable FA profile in CVID patients with decreased plasma EPA, DHA, and anti-inflammatory index and lowered n-6 PUFAs and LA. Plasma FA proportions of n-6 PUFAs and LA have been associated to intestine microbial variety and altered via a 2-week path of rifaximin, suggesting an exciting interplay between intestine microbiota and these FAs, and in specific LA, in CVID. These findings ought to be validated and similarly investigated in a large population, especially in relation to subgroup analyses. Future research must be performed to check out the relationship between intestine microbiota and the FA profile at a mechanistic level, as properly as the doable scientific penalties of an unfavourable FA composition in CVID.

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