Perspective - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 1
Neuroimmunology's understanding of the blood-brain barrier: stories of integration and segregationEdward Goetzl*
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology-Immunology, University of California Medical Center, California, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Edward Goetzl
Departments of Medicine and Microbiology-Immunology
University of California Medical Center, California, USA
Received: 03-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-91960; Editor assigned: 06-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. AACIR-23-91960(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Feb-2023, QC No. AACIR-23-91960; Revised: 22-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-91960(R); Published: 27-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aacir-6.1.133
Citation: Goetzl E. Neuroimmunology understanding of the blood-brain barrier: Stories of integration and segregation. J Clin Immunol. 2023;6(1):133
Neuroimmunology is a branch of immunology that combines the study of the immune system with neuroscience, the study of the neurological system. Understanding the interconnections between these two intricate systems during development, homeostasis, and injury response is a goal of neuroimmunologists. Our understanding of the pathology of several neurological illnesses, some of which have no obvious cause, will be further developed as a long-term goal of this rapidly evolving scientific field. Hence, neuroimmunology aids in the creation of novel pharmaceutical therapies for a number of neurological disorders. The neurological and immunological systems interact in a variety of ways, such as when they function physiologically together in health and sickness, when one or both of them fails and causes problems, and when physical, chemical, and environmental stresses are present .
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are generated during infection by activated macrophages and monocytes, can have an impact on neural targets that regulate thermogenesis, behaviour, sleep, and mood. Cytokines are produced in the central nervous system as a result of brain damage, during bacterial and viral infections, and during neurodegenerative processes. “Despite being an immune privileged region, the brain engages in substantial bi-directional contact with the immune system in both health and sickness. Over the lifespan, immune cells and neuroimmune substances like cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors modify brain function through several signalling pathways. Cytokines and other immune molecules operate as mediators of interactions with the neuroendocrine, neuropeptide, and neurotransmitter systems in response to immunological, physiological, and psychological stresses. The amount of cytokines in the brain .
"It has been demonstrated that neuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation contribute to the pathogenesis of a number of neurological illnesses, including stroke, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, pain, and dementia linked to AIDS. Yet, even in the absence of obvious immunological, physiological, or psychological problems, cytokines and chemokines can still influence Brain activity. For instance, cytokines and cytokine receptor blockers have an impact on mental and emotional functions. According to recent research, immunological chemicals influence brain systems in different ways depending on the person . Neurotrophins and other molecules important to neurodevelopmental processes are regulated by cytokines and chemokines, and early-life exposure to certain neuroimmune challenges has an impact on brain development.
Insights into the mechanisms underlying brain development, evolution, neuronal and network plasticity and homeostasis, senescence, the aetiology of various neurological diseases, and neural regenerative processes have been made possible by the study of the brain and behaviour in the field of epigenetic medicine. It's paving the way for the identification of environmental stressors that control the onset of particular neurological illnesses and particular disease biomarkers. In order to "encourage rapid recovery of compromised and seemingly irretrievably lost cognitive, behavioural, and sensorimotor skills through epigenetic reprogramming of endogenous regional neural stem cells," endogenous regional neural stem cells have been targeted .
Neural stem cell fate
Several studies have demonstrated the complexity of the regulation that controls stem cell maintenance and the following determinations of fate. Knowing the "circuitry utilised to manage stem cell maintenance and progressive neural fate decisions" may help you better understand how complicated choosing a stem cell's fate is. Many neurotransmitter signal channels are used in neural destiny decisions, coupled with epigenetic regulators. To establish subtype selection and ensuing maturation processes, such as myelination, timely orchestration of neuronal stem cell differentiation and glial fate decisions is required .
The brain and nervous system's growth and development are hampered by neurodevelopmental abnormalities, which can cause a wide range of illnesses. Asperger syndrome, traumatic brain injury, communication, speech, and language difficulties, genetic disorders such fragile-X syndrome, Down syndrome, epilepsy, and foetal alcohol syndrome are a few examples of these conditions. Research has demonstrated that basic epigenetic regulatory problems may be the cause of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). Several neuroimmunological studies have demonstrated that, in ASDs, dysregulation of related epigenetic mechanisms can affect gene expression and brain function without resulting in the more obvious genetic defects that are more directly linked to a cause-and-effect relationship. These results are just a few of the new discoveries in hitherto unexplored regions of gene misexpression.
More and more evidence points to incorrect epigenetic pathways as the mediating factor in neurodegenerative disorders. Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease are examples of neurodegenerative illnesses. The lack of straightforward Mendelian inheritance patterns, worldwide transcriptional dysregulation, several forms of pathogenic RNA changes, and many other findings have been supported by neuroimmunological research into these disorders. In one of the studies, treating Huntington's illness with DNA/RNA binding anthracylines and histone deacetylases (HDAC), an enzyme that removes acetyl groups from lysine, had beneficial effects on behavioural tests, neuroprotection, nucleosome remodelling, and related chromatin dynamics. Another recent discovery regarding neurodegenerative disorders is that overexpressing HDAC6 in related animal models reduces the neurodegenerative phenotype connected to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease.
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