Current Trends in Cardiology

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Short Communication - Current Trends in Cardiology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 10

Neurohormonal response and inflammation in acute heart failure

Pietro Ameri*

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genova, Genova, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Pietro Ameri
Department of Health Sciences
University of Genova, Genova, Italy

Received: 28-Sep-2023, Manuscript No. AACC-23-114271; Editor assigned: 30-Sep-2023, Pre QC No.AACC-23-114271(PQ); Reviewed: 16-Oct-2023, QC No. AACC-23-114271; Revised: 21-Oct-2023, Manuscript No.AACC-23-114271(R), Published: 28-Oct-2023,DOI:10.35841/aacc-7.10.208

Citation: Wan Q. Neurohormonal response and inflammation in acute heart failure. J Cell Biol Metab. 2023;7(10):208

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In AHF, neurohormonal activation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of the condition. The sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are two key players in this process. When the heart is under duress, such as in AHF, sympathetic nerve activity increases to boost cardiac output. However, this response, if prolonged or excessive, can have detrimental effects, leading to myocardial damage and worsening heart failure. Norepinephrine, a major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, is released in higher quantities during AHF. Elevated levels of norepinephrine are associated with increased heart rate and blood pressure, which can strain the already weakened heart [1]. Moreover, chronic sympathetic activation can lead to cardiac remodeling, a process characterized by changes in heart structure and function, further exacerbating heart failure. RAAS activation is another neurohormonal response implicated in AHF. The cascade begins with the release of renin, an enzyme produced by the kidneys, in response to reduced renal blood flow. Renin acts on angiotensinogen, converting it into angiotensin I, which is subsequently converted into angiotensin II by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor that raises blood pressure and sodium reabsorption, contributing to fluid retention. Additionally, it stimulates the release of aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium and water retention in the kidneys [2].The cumulative effect of RAAS activation is an increase in cardiac afterload and preload, making it harder for the heart to pump effectively. Furthermore, aldosterone-mediated sodium and water retention contribute to edema and further fluid overload in AHF patients.

Inflammation has emerged as a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of AHF. Initially, it was believed that inflammation played a minor role in AHF compared to chronic heart failure, where it has been extensively studied. However, recent research has highlighted the importance of inflammation in AHF and its potential to worsen the condition [3]. Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been found to be elevated in AHF patients. These markers signify the presence of an acute inflammatory response. Inflammation in AHF can originate from various sources, including the heart itself, as myocardial ischemia or infarction can trigger an inflammatory cascade. Inflammation can lead to endothelial dysfunction, impairing blood vessel dilation and contraction. This dysfunction, in turn, contributes to increased cardiac afterload and decreased cardiac output. Inflammatory cytokines can directly affect cardiac contractility, promoting heart dysfunction. Additionally, inflammation can exacerbate oxidative stress, further damaging the already compromised heart muscle. The Interplay between Neurohormonal Activation and Inflammation.While neurohormonal activation and inflammation may seem like separate processes, they are intimately connected in AHF. Neurohormones like norepinephrine and angiotensin II can stimulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, further amplifying the inflammatory response. Moreover, the stress placed on the heart by sympathetic overstimulation can contribute to myocardial injury and inflammation. Conversely, inflammation can stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and RAAS. The release of inflammatory cytokines can activate sympathetic nerve activity, creating a vicious cycle of neurohormonal activation and inflammation. This interplay between the two systems can lead to a self-perpetuating cycle of cardiac dysfunction and inflammation in AHF. Understanding the intricate relationship between neurohormonal response and inflammation in AHF has important clinical implications [4]. Current treatment strategies often focus on addressing one aspect of the syndrome, such as diuretics to manage fluid overload or beta-blockers to counteract sympathetic overactivity. However, a more comprehensive approach that targets both neurohormonal activation and inflammation may yield better outcomes for AHF patients. One potential avenue for future research and therapeutic development is the use of novel pharmacological agents that target both neurohormonal activation and inflammation simultaneously. For example, drugs that block the effects of norepinephrine on the heart and inhibit the RAAS could help mitigate the harmful effects of neurohormonal activation. Additionally, anti-inflammatory therapies may have a role in reducing inflammation-driven cardiac dysfunction in AHF. Furthermore, personalized medicine approaches could be employed to tailor treatment strategies to individual patients based on their neurohormonal and inflammatory profiles [5]. This would allow for more precise and effective management of AHF.


Acute heart failure is a complex syndrome with a multifactorial etiology. Neurohormonal activation and inflammation are two intertwined processes that significantly contribute to the pathophysiology of AHF. Understanding the interplay between these systems is crucial for developing innovative therapeutic strategies that target both aspects of the syndrome simultaneously. By addressing neurohormonal response and inflammation, healthcare providers can potentially improve outcomes for AHF patients, offering hope for better management of this life-threatening condition in the future.


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