Journal of Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine

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Mini Review - Journal of Physical Therapy and Sports Medicine (2022) Volume 6, Issue 4

Muscular actions: A core review on kinesiology of hip muscles.

Amir Letafkar*

Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Amir Letafkar
Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences
Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

Received: 08-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPTSM-22-68928; Editor assigned: 11-Jul-2022, PreQC No. AAJPTSM-22-68928(PQ); Reviewed: 23-Jul-2022, QC No. AAJPTSM-22-68928; Revised: 25-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. AAJPTSM-22-68928(R); Published: 30-Jul-2022, DOI:10.35841/aajptsm-6.4.120

Citation: Letafkar A. Muscular actions: A core review on kinesiology of hip muscles. J Phys Ther Sports Med. 2022;6(4):120

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The hip joint functions as the body's main point of rotation. This substantial ball-and-socket joint enables simultaneous, triplanar movements of the trunk, pelvis, and femur in relation to each other. Strong and targeted activation of the surrounding musculature of the hips is often required while lifting the foot off the ground, reaching towards the floor, or quickly twisting the trunk and pelvis while supporting the body over one limb.


Kinesiology, Hip muscle, Pelvis.


Numerous common movements involved in both functional and recreational activities can be considerably disrupted by pathology that affects the strength, control, or extensibility of the hip muscles. Additionally, improper hip muscle function may modify how stresses are distributed across the articular surfaces of the joint, thereby inducing or at least predisposing degenerative changes in the articular cartilage, bone, and surrounding connective tissues. Any one of these problems may have a major impact on the alignment of the lumbar spine, pelvis, and femur, ultimately impacting the alignment of the entire lower limb, depending on the individual muscle [1].


The three cardinal hip planes of motion-sagittal, horizontal, and frontal-will be used to arrange the discussion of muscle action. The direction of a muscle's line of force in relation to the joint's axis of rotation largely determines how that muscle acts in each plane of motion. The proximal and distal attachments of the muscles were meticulously dissected and digitised using a male cadaver. The muscle's line of force was shown as a straight line between the attachment locations.

In light of data the muscles of the hip will be assigned as being essential or optional for a given action. A few muscles have simply a minimal potential to deliver a specific activity, because of elements, for example, insignificant second a careful distance or little cross-sectional region. Muscles that probably have an irrelevant activity won't be viewed as in the conversation [2].

Muscle action vs Muscle torque

A muscle force and a muscle activity are to be sure unique. While a muscle activity depicts the possible course of pivot of the joint following its initiation by the sensory system, a muscle force portrays the "strength" of the activity. The two factors of power and the second arm are similarly significant while assessing the potential force result, or strength, of a muscle.

Sagittal plane

Hip flexors: One of the more conspicuous hip flexor muscles is the iliopsoas. This thick muscle creates power across the hip, sacroiliac joint, lumbosacral intersection, and lumbar spine. Since the muscle traverses both the hub and affixed parts of the skeleton, it is a hip flexor as well as a trunk flexor. Likewise, the psoas major manages the cost of a significant component of vertical dependability to the lumbar spine, particularly when the hip is in full expansion and detached strain is most noteworthy in the muscle [3].

The conjoined distal ligament of the iliacus and the psoas significantly crosses the front and marginally average to the femoral head, as it courses toward its addition on the lesser trochanter. With the hip in full expansion, this avoidance raises the ligament's point of addition compared with the femoral head, consequently expanding the muscle's influence for hip flexion.

Hip extensors

The essential hip extensors incorporate the gluteus maximus, the back top of the adductor magnus, and the hamstrings. In the anatomic position, the back top of the adductor magnus has the best second arm for augmentation, followed intently by the semitendinosus. The second arm for both of these extensor muscles increments as the hip is flexed to 60°. The hip extensor muscles, collectively, produce the best force across the hip than some other muscle bunch. The extensor force is frequently used to quickly speed up the body up and advance from a place of hip flexion, for example, while pushing off into a run, emerging from a profound squat, or climbing an exceptionally steep slope [4].

Level plane

Hip external rotators: The outside rotator muscles pass commonly back sidelong to the joint's longitudinal hub of revolution. Since the upward pivot of revolution remains generally lined up with the femur, it is just genuinely vertical close to the anatomic position. From the anatomic position, the optional outer rotators incorporate the back filaments of the gluteus medius and minimus, obturator externus, sartorius, and the long top of the biceps femoris. The obturator externus is viewed as an optional rotator in light of the fact that its line of power lies so near the longitudinal pivot of revolution. The gluteus maximus is the most intense outside rotator muscle of the hip.

Hip internal rotators: In sharp difference to the outer rotators, no muscle with any possibility to inside turn the hip lies really near the level plane. From the anatomic position, hence, it is hard to relegate any muscle as an essential inward rotator of the hip. A few optional interior rotators exist, nonetheless, including the front strands of the gluteus minimus and the gluteus medius, tensor fasciae latae, adductor longus, adductor brevis, pectineus, and back top of the adductor magnus. Since the general direction of the interior rotator muscles is situated nearer to the vertical than even position, these muscles have a far more prominent biomechanical potential to create force in the sagittal and front facing planes than in the flat plane [5].

Front facing plane

Hip adductors: The Primary Adductors of The hip incorporate the pectineus, adductor longus, gracilis, adductor brevis, and adductor magnus (both front and back heads). Optional adductors incorporate the biceps femoris (long head), the gluteus maximus (particularly the back strands), quadratus femoris, and obturator externus.

Hip abductors: The essential hip abductor muscles incorporate all filaments of the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus, and the tensor fasciae latae. The piriformis, sartorius, and rectus femoris are viewed as optional hip abductors. The abductor muscles pass horizontal to the front back pivot of revolution of the hip.


Muscle activities are as of now best comprehended when actuated from the anatomic position. This information would furnish clinicians with a more careful and practical enthusiasm for the possible activities of the muscles that cross the hip. At last, this degree of understanding will work on the capacity to analyze, comprehend, and treat disabilities in light of the unusual working of hip muscles.


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