Editorial - Virology Research Journal (2021) Virology Research Journal (Special Issue 3-2021)
Molecular events of viral replication
Department of Virology, University of Bristol, England, United Kingdom
- Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Martin Boone
Department of Virology
University of Bristol
E-mail: [email protected]
Accepted date:15 September, 2021
Citation: Boone M. Molecular events of viral replication. Virol Res J 2021;5(S3):2.
Understanding the molecular events accompanying virus replication has been a serious focus of experimental virology, and is important for the right understanding and control of all virus diseases. The biological "purpose" of any replication cycle is that the generation of latest viral genomes and proteins in sufficient quantities to make sure propagation of the viral genome this needs that the extracellular viral genome is shielded from enzymatic degradation and may be introduced into further target cells for further rounds of replication. Much has become known about the initial stages of attachment, and more detailed study shows that the initial recognition between virus and host is more complex than originally supposed. Temporal regulation of intracellular events is critical altogether but the very simplest of viruses, with some sort of suppression of the host innate immune reaction being common to nearly all human viruses. There are examples where the innate immune reaction is even wont to enhance virus spread to cells otherwise unavailable to the virus. Over subsequent few years, the boundaries between virus-directed events and cellular processes that control specialized cell functions are likely host innate immune response being common to nearly all human viruses. There are examples where the innate immune reaction is even wont to enhance virus spread to cells otherwise unavailable to the virus. Over the next few years, the boundaries between virus-directed events and cellular processes that control specialized cell functions are likely to be even more complex; nevertheless understanding these processes will open up a variety of targets for the event of novel antiviral therapies and immunotherapy. This presents a summary of the topic, indicating similarities and differences within the replication strategies adopted by viruses of every family that contains human pathogens. Major features and replication requirements of human viruses The development of in vitro cell culture systems was a watershed development in virology: not only did it become possible to dissect the intracellular events accompanying virus replication during a manner almost like that of the study of bacteriophages in bacterial cells, it also provided a way of quantifying the quantity of infectious virus in samples and virus stocks.
Artificial medium was developed to take care of cell viability independent of the source species: these cells might be within the sort of organ cultures, explant cultures, voltaic cell culture monolayers, or monolayer cell cultures immortalized into cell lines. Organ cultures maintain the three-dimensional structure of the tissue of origin and may be useful for short-term experiments that depend on preserving fully differentiated cells. For example, tracheal epithelial cells attached to the cartilage matrix of the trachea during culture played a critical role within the isolation of the many human respiratory viruses. The preparation of voltaic cell cultures uses proteases like trypsin or collagenase to separate individual cells of a tissue like fetal kidney or lung, and therefore the individual cells then attach to a cell culture substrate where a limited number of divisions will occur. The limited lifetime of those cells requires repeated preparation of latest cultures from source tissue, clearly presenting problems with reproducibility. In contrast, continuous propagation of cells is feasible with two sorts of long-term culture:
"Sernicontinuous," "diploid" cell strains, for instance, human lung or foreskin fibroblasts (W during which cells eventually senesce after 20 to 30 divisions Continuous immortalized cell lines, for instance , HeLa cells, BHK-21 cells. These are derived either from tumors or from primary cells that have undergone a spontaneous transformation event during cell culture, and may undergo an almost infinite number of cell divisions, thus generating consistency although often a loss of differentiated cell functions.