Journal of Aging and Geriatric Psychiatry

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Short Article - Journal of Aging and Geriatric Psychiatry (2019) Volume 3, Issue 1

Knowledge on Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease (Ckd) Among Adult Patients Attending Hemodialysis at Muhimbili National Hospital

Adam Malaika

 

Internal Medicine Department, Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania

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Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem in the nation, the burden of chronic kidney disease is rising countrywide, as shown by increases in attributable deaths and prevalence of end-stage kidney disease for example on November 2018 the Patients on dialysis were 224, 242 on December and 251 on January 2019 at Muhimbili national hospital (Muhimbili national hospital medical report dialysis unit 2018/2019). Chronic kidney disease and its complications that which involve most organ systems can be prevented, but awareness and use of accurate methods are needed tenable timely diagnosis. The purpose of this study was tassess the knowledge of risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease. The study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital from October 2018 tMay 2019 in Tanzania from adult patients undergoing hemodialysis. Following consent, participants were studied in their clinics while doing dialysis. Random sampling on bed side was done tobtain patients and provide them with questionnaire. Total population included in the study was180 and those whwere critically ill were not included in the study.

The age group 45–70 years constituted almost 59.4% of the respondents. This implies that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease is higher in elderly people than in the general population. Our results alssuggest that men had a higher prevalence of CKD than women, in the study 124 were men (68.9%), 56 were female (31.1%). It was found that 130 of the respondents had never heard about chronic renal failure before being diagnosed (72.2%) and only 50 (27.8%) patients heard about the disease before suffering with CKD (27.8%). Eighty eight percent of the patients were not aware on the things that lead tchronic renal failure and thus only twelve percent knew some of the risk factors associated with the disease.

Therefore, the clinical based study for adult patients undergoing hemodialysis at Muhimbili national hospital has shown limited knowledge on the risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease. For that case there is need for government thave programs coupled with nurses tincrease awareness and understanding of chronic disease risk factors, the programs formulated should have alternative ways tsee how can reach all required age group all over the country in which the population can meet her healthcare needs, National health insurance fund should look another way timprove their services especially for the first users whare told twait until one year for the card tgrow then start functioning. Finally, then our assessment of local attitudes suggested that such public health efforts would be well received.

Chronic kidney disease alsknown as chronic kidney failure describes the progressive loss of function in the kidneys. Your kidneys remove waste from your blood and excess fluids, which are then excreted intyour urine. As chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, hazardous fluid, electrolyte and waste levels can build up within your body.

You can get few signs or symptoms in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease cannot become evident until it seriously impairs the kidney function.

Physical symptoms: If kidney damage progresses slowly, symptoms and signs of chronic kidney disease develop over time. Kidney disease signs and symptoms could include:

  • Boredom

  • The Vomit

  • Lose appetite

  • Fatigue

  • Troubles in sleep

  • Changes the amount you urinate

  • Diminished mental acuity

  • Twitching muscles and cramps

  • Feet and foot swelling

  • Persistent damage aisons

  • Chest pain, when fluid builds up around the cardiac lining

  • Breath shortening when fluid builds up in the lungs

Kidney disease signs and symptoms are often unspecific, suggesting they can alsbe caused by other diseases. Since your kidneys are highly adaptable and, in a position, tcompensate for lost function, signs and symptoms dnot appear until irreversible damage has occurred.

Causes : Illustration of normal kidney compared tdiseased kidney

Normal kidney vs. diseased kidney and polycystic kidney pop-up dialog compared tnormal kidney Polycystic kidney Open dialog box on pop up Chronic kidney disease occurs when kidney function is impaired by a disease or condition, resulting in kidney damage worsening for several months or years.

Illnesses and disorders causing chronic kidney disease include:

  • Diabetes type 1 or type 2

  • Blood pressure: High

  • Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-low-nuh-FRY-tis), a filtering process inflammation of the kidney (glomeruli)

  • An inflammation of interstitial nephritis (in-tur-STISH-ul nuh-FRY-tis)

  • Polycystic kidney disease

  • Long-term urinary tract obstruction due tconditions such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones and certain cancers

  • Vesicoureteral reflux (ves-ih-koe-yoo-REE-tur-ul), a disorder that causes urine tre-enter the kidneys

  • Recurring infection with the kidneys, alscalled pyelonephritis (pie-uh-low-nuh-FRYtis)

  • Dangerous factors

Factors that could increase the chronic kidney disease risk include:

  • Diabetes Diagnosis

  • Blood pressure: High

  • Cardiovascular disorder of the heart and of the blood vessels

  • Fuming

  • ABSITE

  • Be African-American, Asian-American or Native American

  • Family history of renal illness

  • Abnormal renal structure

  • Age Older

Complications

  • Chronic renal disease can affect virtually any part of your body. Possible complications may include:

  • Fluid retention that can cause swelling of the arms and legs, high blood pressure, or fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)

  • A sudden increase in your blood's potassium levels (hyperkalemia), which could impair your heart's ability tfunction and could be life-threatening

  • Cardiovascular disorder of the heart and of the blood vessels Poor bones and a high chance of bone fractures Anemy

  • Sex drive diminished, erectile dysfunction or fertility decreased

  • Damage tyour central nervous system which can cause concentration difficulties, changes in personality or seizures

  • Diminished immune response, rendering you more susceptible tinfection

  • Pericarditis, Saclike membrane inflammation that envelops your heart (pericardium)

  • Complications of pregnancy which carry risks for the mother and the developing fetus

  • Irreversible damage tyour neck (end stage kidney disease), eventually requiring either di lysis or a survival kidney transplant.

  • Irreversible damage tyour neck (end stage kidney disease), eventually requiring either di lysis or a survival kidney transplant.

Prevention: Reducing the chance of developing kidney disease:

  • Follow over-the-counter drug directions. Follow the instructions on the package when using nonprescription pain relievers like aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), and acetaminophen (Tylenol, others).

  • Taking tomany pain relievers could cause damage tthe kidneys and should generally be avoided if you have kidney disease. Ask your doctor if those medicines are safe for you.

  • Keep healthy weight. If you are at a healthy weight, work by being physically active most days of the week tsustain it. If you need tlose weight, discuss healthy weight loss strategies with your doctor. This often involves increasing physical activity on a daily basis, and reducing calories.

  • Don't fumble. Smoking cigarettes can damage your kidneys, and can make kidney damage worse.