Perspective - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2022) Volume 5, Issue 3
Infections in the immunosuppressed patients.
Biomedicine Zentrum, Maximilian University, Munich, Germany
- *Corresponding Author:
- Daniel Reed
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: 03-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-22-67187; Editor assigned: 04-Jun-2022, PreQC No. AACIR -22-67187(PQ); Reviewed: 17-Jun-2022, QC No. AACIR -22-67187; Revised: 21-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-22-67187(R); Published: 24-Jun-2022, DOI:10.35841/aacir-5.3.111
Citation: Daniel Reed. Pemphigoid diseases: Role of immune cells? J Clin Immunol. 2022;5(3):111
In the context of a suppressed immune system, the interaction of colonisation and infection with the development of acute and chronic pulmonary morbidity and mortality provides an opportunity to study the interaction of infection with the development of chronic pulmonary morbidity. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic lung rejection following transplantation are three diseases that can occur as a result of virus or fungal colonisation or infection, whether HIV or the opportunistic infections Pneumocystis and CMV. These host–pathogen interactions can be used to generate innovative techniques for reducing acute and chronic morbidity associated with colonisation and subclinical infection, as well as possible treatment routes that are frequently neglected in clinical practice [1-2].
The HIV/AIDS period raised clinicians' awareness of opportunistic infections before Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). AIDS-related opportunistic infections are still frequent in the United States, despite the availability of highly effective ART. Many patients are ignorant of their HIV infection, and many patients do not have access to good therapy. Additionally, the repercussions of opportunistic fungal infections, particularly Pneumocystis, are still present, as is the HIV-related comorbidity of pulmonary hypertension.
Immunosuppression, which is required for organ transplantation or the treatment of inflammatory illnesses, is a major source of opportunistic infections. Immunosuppression after lung transplantation may affect the host in terms of susceptibility to the offending pathogen as well as infections by particular pathogens, which may regulate immune function. Cytomegalovirus, for example, decreases T-lymphocyte function and hence increases the risk of invasive fungal infections, such as pneumocystosis. These intricate interactions have the potential to have a significant impact on graft and patient survival .
Why do Immunocompromised People Contract Infections at a Higher Rate than Healthy Patients?
To prevent or eliminate infection, the body's immune system employs a variety of defences. Bacteria, viruses, and fungus are among the species that can cause infection. A variety of disorders and their therapies can impair (immunocompromize) the immune system . Here are some examples of things that can compromise the body's immune system:
Skin, mouth lining, and the rest of the gastrointestinal tract breakdown. This can happen as a side effect of medication, as a result of cancer therapy with radiation, or for other reasons. Infection-fighting cells, such as white blood cells, are in lower quantities. This can occur as a result of certain cancers or as a side effect of cancer therapy medications. Foreign objects such as venous (vein) or urine catheters are present (tubes). In order to avoid infection, patients who use these devices must be cautious.
In Immunocompromised People, Why are Infections so Dangerous?
It's possible that the typical symptoms aren't present. The traditional indications of infection, such as redness and swelling at the infection site, may not be visible in patients with weakened immune systems. Fever is sometimes the only indication of an infection.
It's possible that the illness will spread swiftly. Without infection-fighting white blood cells, an infection can quickly advance from a simple fever to sepsis and death. As a result, individuals with weakened immune systems and low white blood cell counts are encouraged to report fevers as soon as possible. If these individuals develop a fever, they are frequently admitted to the hospital for treatment with Intravenous (IV) antibiotics .
It's possible that their systems won't be able to respond rapidly enough to an infection. Patients with weakened immune systems may struggle to rid their bodies of infections. A viral infection, such as the "flu," for example, may take longer to clear in a patient with a weakened immune system than in someone with a good immune system.
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