Immunology Case Reports

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Mini Review - Immunology Case Reports (2022) Volume 5, Issue 4

Immune enhancement therapy in COVID-19 patients: A mini review.

Wen Fei*

Department of Rheumatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China

*Corresponding Author:
Wen Fei
Department of Rheumatology
Peking Union Medical College Hospital

Received: 01-July-2022, Manuscript No. AAICR-22-69443; Editor assigned: 04-July-2022, Pre QC No. AAICR-22-69443(PQ); Reviewed: 18-July-2022, QC No. AAICR-22-69443; Revised: 22-July-2022, Manuscript No. AAICR-22-69443(R);; Published: 29-July-2022, DOI:10.35841/aaicr-5.4.120

Citation: Fei W. Immune enhancement therapy in COVID-19 patients: A mini review. Immunol Case Rep 2022;5(4):120

Visit for more related articles at Immunology Case Reports


In March 2020, when COVID sickness 2019 (COVID-19) was simply starting to spread all over the planet, we introduced the expected advantages and contentions of calming treatment in COVID-19 patients in view of the restricted insight and proposed a few kinds of mitigating drugs with likely remedial worth, while without proof based information. In another year, numerous clinical preliminaries or certifiable examinations have been performed, either verify or refute the viability of specific mitigating drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. In this audit we sum up the advancement of mitigating and resistant treatment in COVID-19, including glucocorticoids, IL-6 bad guy, IL-1 inhibitor, kinase inhibitors, non-steroidal calming medications and chloroquine/ hydroxychloroquine.


Coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19), Cytokine storm, Anti-aggravation treatment, Immune treatment.


A long time back, when the pandemic episode of COVID illness 2019 (COVID-19) was simply starting to spread all over the planet, we introduced the likely advantages and discussions of mitigating treatment in COVID-19 patients in view of the restricted insight and proposed a few kinds of calming drugs with potential helpful worth [1]. Around then, these medications were absence of help of proof based medication. Another year after the fact, there has been numerous clinical preliminaries or genuine examinations either verify or refute the viability of certain sorts of mitigating drugs in the treatment of COVID-19. In this survey we will sum up the advancement of mitigating and resistant treatment in COVID-19. Many gamble factors have been recognized for COVID-19 to advance into a serious and basic stage, among which the irregularity of the invulnerable framework is one of the significant reasons. Various examinations and meta-investigation from various nations have revealed many gamble factors for COVID-19 to form into a serious and basic stage, including advanced age, male orientation, smoking, comorbidities (like hypertension, diabetes, corpulence, persistent lung infection, heart, liver and kidney illness and growth), fundamental or nearby immunodeficiency, and pregnancy. Lab boundaries showing weakening incorporate lymphopenia, huge expansion in overly sensitive C-receptive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and supportive of fiery cytokines, for example, IL-6 and IL-1β, as well as expansion in aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and Krebs van nook Lungen-6 (KL-6) and the actuation of coagulation framework [2]. The condition of the body's invulnerable framework significantly affects the movement of COVID-19 to a serious and basic stage. Fundamental safe states or insusceptible related medicines likewise surely affect the result of COVID-19. Overviews in Chinese Hubei Province showed the gamble of COVID-19 disease in rheumatic patients was 2.68 times higher than that in non-rheumatic patients, and respiratory disappointment was more normal in rheumatic patients contaminated with COVID-19. A review including 9 case series found that different enemy of rheumatic prescriptions or natural specialists for patients with immune system sicknesses had different impact on the course of the COVID-19. For instance, patients treated with hydroxychloroquine or growth putrefaction factor α (TNFα) inhibitors had a generally gentle sickness, while patients treated with rituximab or interleukin-17 (IL-17) monoclonal antibodies had a somewhat severer infection. Also, another survey summed up the clinical information of COVID-19 patients with previous compromised invulnerable frameworks, which included 36 investigations covering 126 patients with various illnesses [3]. These patients included 10 instances of innate immunoglobulin lack, like normal variation immunodeficiency (CVID), X-connected agammaglobulinemia because of loss-of-capability transformations in the burton tyrosine kinase (BTK), and 116 instances of obtained immunosuppression, who had been involving immunosuppressant for quite a while after heart, liver and kidney transplantation. The outcomes showed that organ relocate beneficiaries with COVID-19 had a higher death rate by and large, which expanded essentially with age, comorbidities, and intricacies. The death pace of kidney relocates beneficiaries with COVID-19. Cytokine storm is affirmed to be one of the significant explanations behind the deteriorating of COVID-19 patients. A few examinations have found critical expansion in cytokines in COVID-19 patients' serum, including IL-1, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-10, granulocyte-settlement invigorating variable (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage province animating element (GM-CSF), chemokine family (CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), TNFα and vascular endothelial development factor (VEGF), some of which were more huge in serious patients, like IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, MCP-3 and macrophage provocative protein-1 (MIP-1). In addition, dissolvable IL-2 receptor (sCD25) was likewise essentially expanded in most extreme COVID-19 patients. Raised degrees of ferritin and other fiery variables in fringe blood likewise proposed that the enactment of macrophage may be exceptionally corresponded with sickness movement [4]. The IL-6 delivered by actuated macrophages is critical to starting cytokine storms. The increment of IL-6 prompts intensification of a progression of provocative fountains. IL-6 can actuate Th17 cells, CD8 + cytotoxic T cells and B cells, and diminishes the killing impact of NK cells. What's more, IL-6 can instigate the declarations of VEGF, MCP-1 and IL-8 prompting increment porousness of vascular and advance monocyte chemo taxis. In the interim, IL-6 can advance creation of CRP, ferritin and supplement. The above systems can somewhat make sense of the key pathophysiological appearances of extreme COVID-19, including intense respiratory misery disorder (ARDS), hypotension, and scattered intravascular coagulation. In this manner, cytokine storm is viewed as one of the significant purposes behind the improvement of COVID-19 to basic sickness. Numerous clinical preliminaries on mitigating cytokine treatment are in progress, and some are finished. Be that as it may, there are as yet numerous issues to be tackled about the directing meaning of cytokine storm in treatment of COVID-19. In recently distributed clinical examinations about ARDS brought about by different reasons, the middle degree of IL-6 in fringe blood of patients was around 10 to multiple times than that in serious COVID-19 patients [5]. Likewise, in patients with serious COVID-19, it is challenging to recognize defensive aggravation (freedom of the microbe) and pathogenic irritation (to go after the body). More examinations are expected to explore the job of provocative cytokine storms during the time spent lung injury and multi-framework injury in COVID-19 patients, in order to additionally confirm the meaning of designated fiery treatment.


  1. Dummer W, Niethammer AG, Baccala R, et al. T cell homeostatic proliferation elicits effective antitumor autoimmunity. J Clinical Investigation. 2002;110(2):185-92.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Dudley ME, Yang JC, Sherry R, et al. Adoptive cell therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma: evaluation of intensive myeloablative chemoradiation preparative regimens. J Clinical Oncol. 2008;26(32):5233..
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Dudley ME, Wunderlich JR, Robbins PF, et al. Cancer regression and autoimmunity in patients after clonal repopulation with antitumor lymphocytes. Sci. 2002;298(5594):850-4.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Pilon-Thomas S, Kuhn L, Ellwanger S, et al. Brief communication: efficacy of adoptive cell transfer of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes after lymphopenia induction for metastatic melanoma. J Immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md.: 1997). 2012;35(8):615.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Andersen R, Borch TH, Draghi A, et al. T cells isolated from patients with checkpoint inhibitor-resistant melanoma are functional and can mediate tumor regression. Annals of Oncol. 2018;29(7):1575-81.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App