Hematology and Blood Disorders

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Rapid Communication - Hematology and Blood Disorders (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4

Hodgkin lymphoma: Understanding a classic blood cancer

Cameron Brooks *

Department of Bleeding Disorders, University of Toronto, Canada

*Corresponding Author:
Cameron Brooks
Department of Bleeding Disorders, University of Toronto, Canada
E-mail: brooks@utoronto.ca

Received: 28-Feb-2024, Manuscript No. AAHBD-24-136400; Editor assigned: 01-Mar-2024, PreQC No AAHBD-24-136400 (PQ) Reviewed:14-Mar-2024, QC No. AAHBD-24-136400Revised:20-Mar-2024, Manuscript No. AAHBD-24-136400 (R); Published:27-Mar-2024, DOI:10.35841/aahbd-6.4.166

Citation: Brooks C. Hodgkin lymphoma: Understanding a classic blood cancer. Hematol Blood Disord. 2024;6(4):165

Visit for more related articles at Hematology and Blood Disorders


Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), also known as Hodgkin’s disease, is a type of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system, specifically from B lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, large abnormal cells found in the lymph nodes [1].

HL is one of the most curable forms of cancer, with high survival rates, especially when diagnosed and treated in its early stages. This article provides an overview of Hodgkin lymphoma, including its epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment modalities [2].

Hodgkin lymphoma accounts for a minority of all lymphomas, comprising approximately 10% of cases. It primarily affects young adults aged 15-35 years and older adults over the age of 55, with a slight male predominance [3].

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Infection: EBV, a member of the herpesvirus family, is implicated in the pathogenesis of some cases of HL, particularly in young adults. Genetic Predisposition: Individuals with a family history of HL or other lymphoproliferative disorders have an increased risk of developing the disease [4].

Immunodeficiency: Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those who have undergone organ transplantation and require immunosuppressive therapy, are at higher risk. Environmental Factors: Exposure to certain chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents, as well as a history of infectious mononucleosis, have been associated with an increased risk of HL [5].

The clinical presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma varies depending on the stage and extent of the disease. Common signs and symptoms include: Painless Lymphadenopathy: Enlarged lymph nodes, usually in the neck, armpits, or groin. B Symptoms: Fever, night sweats, and unintentional weight loss (>10% of body weight over six months) [6].

Pruritus: Itching, often in the absence of a rash. Fatigue: Generalized weakness and lethargy. Alcohol-Induced Pain: Pain or discomfort in lymph nodes after alcohol consumption (a characteristic feature of HL) [7].

The diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma is established through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and tissue biopsy. Diagnostic modalities include: Physical Examination: Assessment of lymph node enlargement and other signs of disease involvement. Imaging: CT scans, PET scans, and MRI are used to evaluate the extent of disease spread [8].

Biopsy: Histopathological examination of lymph node or extranodal tissue to identify Reed-Sternberg cells and confirm the diagnosis. Laboratory Tests: Complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and liver function tests may show nonspecific abnormalities [9].

The treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma depends on the stage, histological subtype, and patient factors. Common treatment modalities include: Chemotherapy: Combination chemotherapy regimens, such as ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) or BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone), are used as first-line therapy [10].


Hodgkin lymphoma is a treatable and often curable form of cancer, with excellent long-term survival rates, particularly in young patients. Advances in diagnosis, staging, and treatment have led to significant improvements in patient outcomes. However, challenges remain in the management of relapsed or refractory disease and the long-term consequences of treatment. Ongoing research efforts aim to further optimize therapy and minimize treatment-related toxicity, ultimately improving the quality of life for individuals affected by Hodgkin lymphoma.


  1. Armitage JO, Chen RW, Moskowitz CH, Sweetenham JW. Managing risk in Hodgkin lymphoma. Millenim Medical Publishing; 2015.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  3. Eichenauer DA, Aleman BM,. Hodgkin lymphoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 2018;29:iv19-29.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Engert A, Ballova V,. Hodgkin's lymphoma in elderly patients: a comprehensive retrospective analysis from the German Hodgkin's Study Group. J clin oncol. 2005;23(22):5052-60.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Evens AM, Hutchings M, Diehl V. Treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma: the past, present, and future. Nat clin practice Oncol. 2008;5(9):543-56.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Gallamini A,. Early interim 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography is prognostically superior to international prognostic score in advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a report from a joint Italian-Danish study. Journal of clinical oncology. 2007;25(24):3746-52.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  11. Hasenclever D. A prognostic score for advanced Hodgkin's disease. New England J Med. 1998 339(21):1506-14.
  12. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  13. Eichenauer DA,. Hodgkin lymphoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology. 2018;29:iv19-29.
  14. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  15. Radford J,. Results of a trial of PET-directed therapy for early-stage Hodgkin’s lymphoma. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015 Apr 23;372(17):1598-607.
  16. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  17. Skoetz N,. Effect of initial treatment strategy on survival of patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin's lymphoma: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. The lancet oncology. 2013;14(10):943-52.
  18. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  19. Campo E,. WHO classification of tumours of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Swerdlow SH, editor. Lyon, France: International agency for research on cancer; 2008.
  20. Indexed at, Google Scholar

Get the App