Journal of Clinical Immunology Research

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (629)348-3199

Editorial - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 3

Gut-Brain Axis and Neuroimmunology: Exploring the Bidirectional Relationship

Li Zhou*

Department of Central Laboratory, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

Corresponding Author:
Li Zhou
Department of Central Laboratory
Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

Received: 03-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-104168; Editor assigned: 06-Jul-2023, Pre QC No. AACIR-23-104168(PQ); Reviewed: 20-Jul-2023, QC No. AACIR-23-104168;Revised: 22-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-104168(R); Published: 27-Jul-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aacir-6.3.153

Citation: Zhou L. Gut-brain axis and neuroimmunology: Exploring the bidirectional relationship. J Clin Immunol. 2023;6(3):153

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical Immunology Research


The gut-brain axis refers to the bidirectional communication between the gut and the Central Nervous System (CNS), linking the enteric nervous system and the brain. Recent research has revealed the crucial role of this axis in neuroimmunology, highlighting the intricate connection between the gut microbiota, immune system, and brain function. This essay aims to explore the relationship between the gut-brain axis and neuroimmunology, elucidating the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota influences immune responses and neurological function. Understanding this complex interplay is vital for comprehending the pathogenesis of neuroimmune disorders and developing novel therapeutic interventions targeting the gut-brain axis [1].

The gut microbiota and immune regulation: The gut microbiota, composed of trillions of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a pivotal role in immune regulation. The gut microbiota and its metabolites interact with the immune system through various mechanisms, influencing immune responses and maintaining immune homeostasis [2].

Microbial diversity and immune development: The presence of a diverse gut microbiota during early life is critical for immune system maturation and the development of immune tolerance. Microbial signals received by the immune system, such as Microbial-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), shape the development and function of immune cells, including regulatory T cells (Tregs). Tregs are crucial for suppressing excessive immune responses and preventing immune-mediated inflammation.

Modulation of immune responses: The gut microbiota plays a role in modulating immune responses in both the gut and systemic compartments. Commensal bacteria and their metabolites interact with immune cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells, influencing their activation, proliferation, and differentiation. Short-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), produced by gut bacteria through the fermentation of dietary fiber, have immunomodulatory effects, promoting the development of regulatory immune cells and dampening pro-inflammatory responses [3].

Gut barrier integrity and immune tolerance: The gut microbiota helps maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier, preventing the translocation of harmful bacteria and microbial products into the bloodstream. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the gut microbiota composition, can compromise gut barrier function, leading to increased intestinal permeability and immune activation. This phenomenon, known as "leaky gut," can trigger immune-mediated inflammation and contribute to the development of neuroimmune disorders [4].

Neuroimmune interactions in the gut-brain axis: The gutbrain axis enables bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, involving neural, endocrine, and immune pathways. Neuroimmune interactions within the gut-brain axis have profound implications for neurological function, mental health, and neuroimmune disorders.

Vagus nerve and immune signaling: The vagus nerve serves as a major communication route between the gut and the brain. It transmits signals bidirectionally, allowing for immuneto- brain and brain-to-immune communication. The vagus nerve can modulate immune responses through the release of neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, that interact with immune cells and regulate inflammatory processes. This neural pathway plays a crucial role in controlling neuroinflammation and influencing brain function.

Microbiota-derived metabolites and neuroimmune modulation: Metabolites produced by the gut microbiota, such as SCFAs, neurotransmitters, and microbial peptides, have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and influence neuroimmune responses. SCFAs, in particular, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties and can regulate microglial activation, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and neuronal function [5].


  1. Naveed M, Zhou QG, Xu C, et al. Gut-brain axis: A matter of concern in neuropsychiatric disorder!. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatr. 2021;104:110051.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Li Q, Zhou JM. The microbiota–gut–brain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder. Neurosci. 2016;324:131-9.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Vojdani A, Lambert J, Vojdani E. The gut-brain axis: autoimmune and neuroimmune disorders. Altern Ther Health Med. 2016;22.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar

  7. Giron MC, Mazzi U. Molecular imaging of microbiota-gut-brain axis: searching for the right targeted probe for the right target and disease. Nucl Med Biol. 2021;92:72-7.
  8. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  9. Petra AI, Panagiotidou S, Hatziagelaki E, et al. Gut-microbiota-brain axis and its effect on neuropsychiatric disorders with suspected immune dysregulation. Clin Ther. 2015;37(5):984-95.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App