Rapid Communication - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 4
Guardians Within: Immunosurveillance in Cancer Defense
Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Olive Old
Department of Immunology
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
Received:05-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-112223;Editor assigned:08-Aug-2023, Pre QC No. AACIR-23-112223(PQ); Reviewed:22-Aug-2023, QC No. AACIR-23-112223; Revised:25-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-112223;Published:01-Sep-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aacir-6.4.160
Citation: Old O. Guardians within: Immunosurveillance in cancer defense. J Clin Immunol. 2023;6(4):160
1].. The immune system's watchful eye: The immune system's role in immuno-surveillance revolves around its ability to distinguish between normal, healthy cells and those that have undergone mutations leading to aberrant behavior?cancer cells. Immune cells, particularly Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTLs), survey tissues, searching for these rogue cells by recognizing distinctive molecular markers, called antigens, displayed on their surfaces. These antigens can include proteins that are overexpressed, mutated, or otherwise altered in cancer cells .. Antigen presentation: Dendritic cells and macrophages engulf cancer cells and process their antigens. These processed antigens are then displayed on the surface of these immune cells. Activation of T cells: CTLs that patrol the body's tissues come into contact with the presented antigens. If a CTL's receptor matches the antigen, the CTL is activated, priming it to target the cancer cell .. Immune attack: Activated CTLs recognize the cancer cells through the antigens and unleash a barrage of cytotoxic mechanisms, ultimately leading to the destruction of the rogue cells. Memory formation: Some activated CTLs transform into memory T cells, poised to respond even more rapidly if encountered with the same cancer cells in the future .. Evasion and immune escape: While immunosurveillance serves as a powerful defense against cancer, it's not an infallible process. Some cancer cells develop strategies to evade immune detection, allowing them to grow unchecked. These evasion tactics can include: Downregulation of antigens: Cancer cells can decrease the expression of antigens, making them less recognizable to immune cells. Inhibition of immune response: Tumors can release inhibitory molecules that suppress the immune response, rendering immune cells less effective. Immune checkpoint activation: Tumors can engage immune checkpoints-proteins that control the intensity of the immune response?preventing immune cells from attacking. Harnessing immunosurveillance for therapy: Immunosurveillance's significance extends beyond just understanding cancer development; it has paved the way for innovative therapies. Immunotherapy interventions, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, aim to reactivate and amplify the immune response against cancer cells. These therapies release the brakes that cancer cells have put on the immune system, allowing for a more effective immune attack ..
Immunosurveillance serves as a testament to the intricate balance of the human body. This evolutionary marvel demonstrates that our immune system is not just a defense mechanism; it's a vigilant sentinel, safeguarding against the emergence and proliferation of cancer. Understanding the nuances of immunosurveillance has already transformed cancer treatment, offering new hope and avenues for patients. As we delve deeper into this remarkable process, we stand at the threshold of even more breakthroughs that could one day lead us to the era of personalized, immune-centered cancer therapies..
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