Perspective - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2023) Volume 6, Issue 2
Enhancing the effects of pregnancy with modulating immunity
Department of Immunology, Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland
- Corresponding Author:
- C Mackay
Department of Immunology,
Basel Institute for Immunology,
Received: 06-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-82562; Editor assigned: 08-Dec-2022, AACIR-23-82562 (PQ); Reviewed: 22-Dec-2022, QC No. AACIR-23-82562; Revised: 08-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AACIR-23-82562 (R); Published: 16-Feb-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacir.6.2.140
Citation: Mackay C. Enhancing the effects of pregnancy with modulating immunity. J Clin Immunol Res. 2023;6(2):1-2.
The immune system changes throughout pregnancy to promote foetal growth and facilitate labour. Preterm birth and stillbirth are both negative pregnancy outcomes that can result from abnormal immune activation when immunity is off. In order to improve the outcomes of pregnancies, the immune system can be modulated through diet or maternal immunisation, for instance. Both immunological tolerance and avoiding overreacting to the presence of microorganisms with inflammatory cascades that could endanger the pregnancy are requirements for pregnant people (immune resilience) .
They produce long lasting immunosuppressive T cells as well as exhausted T cells that selectively inhibit killer cell characteristics in order to do this. Both seem essential for a healthy pregnancy because they prevent abnormal immunological activation. On the other hand, an imbalance in the birth canal’s commensal microorganisms might set off immunological reactions that have been connected to preterm and other pregnancy issues. Mothers and children can share antibodies and other immunological components through the placenta. Thus, a mother’s established immunity to infections, including those acquired by vaccination, can shield the child after delivery .
In some communities, it has been demonstrated that particular dietary modifications can prevent preterm labour. According to scientists, careful immune system modification in the mother through diet or immunisation can enhance the success of pregnancies. Around 37 to 42 weeks of pregnancy, signals from the mother and the foetus work together to closely regulate the timing and induction of this inflammation. Thus, the risk of pregnancy problems should be decreased by interventions that prevent unneeded inflammation. The only physiological state in which genetically foreign cells and tissues come into direct physical touch with the host immune system without being rejected, pregnancy is an immunological marvel. It is yet unknown what stops maternal immune cells from attacking foetal organs .
Pregnancy related immunological tolerance and resilience deficiencies are most likely represented by the abnormal activation of maternal immune components linked to pregnancy problems including preterm. It’s interesting that previous pregnancies seem to guard against future pregnancies with difficulties like this. Long lived T cells with a preference for Y-chromosome encoded antigens help mothers of sons immunologically remember their new born. Recent studies on these mouse fetal specific T cells have shown that pregnancy prompts maternal T cells to take on functionally distinct characteristics .
Researchers have discovered, for instance, that when exposed to foetal antigens again in subsequent pregnancies, maternal CD8+ killer T cells preferentially quiet their killer cell capabilities. This is known as an exhaustion prone phenotype. Simultaneously, one of us (S.S.W.) and colleagues has demonstrated that pregnancy increases CD4+ T cell differentiation, which is responsible for inhibiting, rather than activating, other immune cells. When compared to first pregnancies, the frequency of pregnancy problems is significantly lower in subsequent pregnancies, which may help to explain why these protective advantages appears to be paternity specific. Fetal cells that remain in the mother’s bloodstream and continue to circulate may help to further enforce this immunological tolerance .
To best safeguard mother and child, dietary and vaccination programmes for mothers can be enhanced. There is little information on how direct immune modulatory methods, like dietary changes, can improve unfavourable pregnancy outcomes. Data demonstrating better pregnancy outcomes for mothers who received vaccinations or who took omega-3 or Larginine supplements provide evidence that the overall burden of pregnancy difficulties may be lessened. Worldwide, it is thought that two thirds of neonatal deaths and half of maternal deaths are related to inadequate access to high quality healthcare. Disadvantaged and marginalised populations are disproportionately affected by negative pregnancy outcomes. Studies on unfavourable pregnancy outcomes conducted by the born strong initiative concentrate on scalable and deployable interventions in underserved groups. Optimizing immune modulatory therapies targeted at lowering stillbirth and premature birth clearly requires an integrated strategy. Healthcare for mothers and new born differs in that each involves different professionals who have different priorities. The advantages of integrated mother and child care models are now starting to become clear.
- Chu HY, Englund JA. Maternal immunization. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;59(4):560-8.
- Olin P, Hallander HO, Gustafsson L, et al. How to make sense of pertussis immunogenicity data. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33(4):S288-91.
- Baxter R, Bartlett J, Fireman B, et al. Effectiveness of vaccination during pregnancy to prevent infant pertussis. Pediatrics. 2017;139(5):e20164091.
- Kurtz J. Specific memory within innate immune systems. Trends Immunol. 2005;26(4):186-92.
- Fadel S, Sarzotti M. Cellular immune responses in neonates. Int Rev Immunol. 2000;19(2-3):173-93.