Journal of Biotechnology and Phytochemistry

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Commentary - Journal of Biotechnology and Phytochemistry (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2

Cytokinins and Abscisic Acid essential phytohormones for the growth and development of crops

Peter Autmun*

Department of Biotechnology

*Corresponding Author:
Peter Autmun
Department of Biotechnology
University of Helsinki
United Kingdom

Received:29-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AAJBP-23-94261; Editor assigned:31-Mar-2023, PreQC No. AAJBP-23-94261(PQ); Reviewed:14-Apr-2023, QC No. AAJBP-23-94261; Revised:19-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AAJBP-23-94261(R); Published:26-Apr-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aajbp-7.2.138

Citation: Autmun P. Cytokinins and Abscisic Acid essential phytohormones for the growth and development of crops. 2023;7(2):138

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Plants are living organisms that require a wide range of environmental stimuli to grow and develop properly. To respond to these stimuli, plants have evolved an intricate system of signaling pathways that are mediated by a group of chemical substances known as phytohormones or plant hormones. Phytohormones play a vital role in regulating various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli.

Phytohormones are produced naturally within the plant and are transported to different parts of the plant to elicit a response. These hormones act as signaling molecules that initiate a cascade of physiological processes, leading to changes in plant growth and development. Phytohormones are classified into five main categories based on their chemical structure and biological function. These categories include auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid, and ethylene [1].

Understanding how phytohormones work is essential for the growth and development of crops. Farmers and gardeners can manipulate plant growth and development by using phytohormones to increase crop yield and quality. For example, by spraying gibberellins on grapevines, farmers can increase the size and sweetness of the grapes. Similarly, by using cytokinins, farmers can produce more branches, flowers, and a fruit on tomato plants. Moreover, the study of phytohormones has several industrial applications. For instance, the production of fruit and vegetable ripening agents, herbicides, and insecticides is based on the knowledge of plant hormones. Additionally, phytohormones have been used to produce plant-based medicines for treating human diseases such as cancer and inflammation. In recent years, the study of phytohormones has gained significant attention due to the role they play in plant growth and development. Researchers are exploring new ways to manipulate phytohormones to enhance crop growth and develop new plant-based medicines. Advances in technology, such as genetic engineering and transcriptomics, are providing new insights into the complex interactions between phytohormones and other signaling pathways in plants [2].


Cytokinins are a type of phytohormone that promote cell division and delay senescence in plants. They are essential for the growth and development of plants and have been found to regulate various processes such as shoot initiation, leaf senescence, and root development. Cytokinins are produced in the root tips, developing seeds, and young leaves, and are transported to other parts of the plant via the xylem and phloem. One of the primary functions of cytokinins is to promote cell division. They stimulate the production of proteins that control the cell cycle and trigger cell division in the plant. This leads to the growth of new shoots, leaves, and roots. Cytokinins also play a crucial role in delaying senescence or the aging process in plants. They inhibit the breakdown of chlorophyll, which is responsible for the green color of leaves, and thus prolong the life of the leaves. Cytokinins also interact with other plant hormones, such as auxins, to control plant growth and development. For instance, the ratio of cytokinins to auxins determines whether a plant will produce more roots or shoots. A higher concentration of cytokinins promotes shoot growth, while a higher concentration of auxins promotes root growth [3].

Abscisic Acid

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that regulates various physiological processes in plants, including seed dormancy, drought tolerance, and stomatal closure. ABA is produced in response to environmental stimuli such as drought, salt stress, and low temperatures. One of the primary functions of ABA is to promote seed dormancy. It inhibits germination by blocking the production of enzymes that break down the seed coat and activate germination. This ensures that the seed only germinates under favorable environmental conditions. ABA also plays a crucial role in regulating water balance in plants. When a plant experiences water stress, ABA levels increase, leading to the closure of stomata. This reduces water loss through transpiration and helps the plant conserve water. ABA also regulates the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of proteins that protect cells from dehydration [4].

In addition to its role in seed dormancy and water balance, ABA has been found to regulate other physiological processes in plants, such as leaf senescence, root growth, and fruit ripening. A better understanding of ABA's role in plant growth and development can lead to the development of crops that are more tolerant to drought and other environmental stresses [5].


Phytohormones are an essential part of plant biology. They play a vital role in regulating plant growth and development and responding to environmental stimuli. Understanding how phytohormones work is critical to improving crop yields and developing new plant-based medicines. The study of phytohormones remains an active area of research in plant biology, and it is likely to lead to many exciting discoveries in the future.


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