Current Trends in Cardiology

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Perspective - Current Trends in Cardiology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 4

Cardiotoxic complications of chemotherapy.

Jay Tabernero*

Department of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain

*Corresponding Author:
Jay Tabernero
Department of Medical Oncology
Vall d'Hebron University Hospital
Barcelona, Spain

Received: 25-Feb-2023 ,Manuscript No. AACC-23-93222; Editor assigned: 28-Feb-2023, PreQC No.AACC-23-93222(PQ); Reviewed: 14-Mar-2023, QC No. AACC-23-93222; Revised: 18-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AACC-23-93222(R); Published: 25-Mar-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacc-7.3.148

Citation: Tabernero J. Cardiotoxic complications of chemotherapy. J Cell Biol Metab. 2023;7(3):148

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Being the cause of 1.6% of all deaths among women each year, breast cancer is the most common type of neoplastic in this group. Because of this, it is a serious concern for public health, and research in this area has to be prioritized. Chemotherapies are extremely strong treatments that, either by themselves or in combination with radiation, can prolong life or reduce the likelihood that cancer will return, but their usage may be constrained by cardio toxicity. Cardio toxicity, which can range from asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction to permanent heart failure, can emerge early or late following treatment. Conventional echocardiographic measurements are now used to identify cardiac dysfunction brought on by chemotherapy. They can't, however, pick up on minute, early alterations in heart shape and function. As a result, describing novel techniques that might identify cardiac dysfunction at an early stage is crucial for identifying the patient population at risk for irreversible heart failure and for keeping track of the course of treatment [1].

Breast cancer accounts for 16% of all cancer cases in women globally, making it the most prevalent kind. According to a World Health Organization report, breast cancer accounts for 1 in every 6 cases of cancer and accounts for 1.6% of all fatalities worldwide each year. Almost 1.1 million new cases of breast cancer are detected in women each year, indicating that the disease is becoming more common. Because breast cancer is presently a significant economic and public health concern, finding novel treatments and ensuring their safe use should be top priorities. Several researches revealed that breast cancer can now be thought of as a treatable condition thanks to modern treatment. And in fact, the utilization of a multidisciplinary approach, including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, has led to a notable decline in mortality. Because of longer life expectancies, it is crucial that some oncologic treatments remain secure [2].

In recent years, there has been a major improvement in cancer therapy, which has been shown to both minimize recurrences and greatly enhance the rate of cure for breast cancer. The danger of cardio toxicity, however, restricts the use of these medications. One of the most significant side effects of chemotherapy is cardio toxicity, which significantly raises morbidity and death. Cardio toxicity, which can range from asymptomatic myocardial dysfunction to irreversible heart failure or even death, might manifest early in the course of the illness or late. There is a lack of information on the mechanisms behind the development of cardiac dysfunction during chemotherapy and the vulnerability of patients to experience cardio toxicity. According to certain studies, people without a known cardiovascular history may experience symptoms of heart failure in direct relation to the cumulative amount administered. This finding has prompted doctors to administer chemotherapy at lower doses, which has decreased the effectiveness of the drug. Yet, there is also a danger of cardio toxicity brought on by chemotherapy under these conditions, a risk that the cumulative dosage cannot predict. However, the cardiac change is very commonly asymptomatic and it might occur early (during therapy), late (within the first year following therapy) or very late (more than one year after finishing therapy) Hence, a better knowledge of pathogenesis, early detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, vigilant cardiac monitoring throughout antineoplastic treatment, and prevention of cardio toxicity are all crucial [3].

As time went on, conventional echocardiography's structural and functional parameters, including left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), as well as diameters and volumes, were used to make recommendations for the diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction brought on by chemotherapy. These traditional tests, however, only allow for the late detection of heart malfunction, which may already be irreparable. More precise and repeatable indicators that can identify patients at risk for quick development towards irreversible heart failure and who can benefit from early treatment approaches are therefore much needed. These metrics should be able to detect early, subclinical LV dysfunction. As a result, this article examines the definition and mechanisms of chemotherapy's cardio toxic effects. Moreover, it highlights the significance of early cardiac dysfunction identification throughout the course of the disease, with a particular focus on the imagistic methods [4].


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