Journal of Clinical Immunology Research

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Review Article - Journal of Clinical Immunology Research (2022) Volume 5, Issue 5

Briefly about COVID-19 Pandemic

Sinisa Franjic*

Department of Immunology, Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Metropolitan, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Corresponding Author:
Sinisa Franjic
Department of Immunology
Sarajevo School of Science and Technology
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Received: 03-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-22-71104; Editor assigned: 05-Aug-2022, AACIR-22-71104 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Aug-2022, QC No. AACIR-22-71104; Revised: 03-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. AACIR-22-71104 (R); Published: 10-Oct-2022, DOI: 10.35841/AACIR.5.5.121

Citation: Franjic S. Briefly about COVID-19 pandemic. J Clin Immunol. 2022;5(5):1-5.

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The COVID-19 pandemic is a COVID-19 airway pandemic. The disease first appeared in late December 2019 in Wuhan in the Chinese province of Hubei. In January 2020, it developed into an epidemic and spread around the world. It was caused by a hitherto unknown virus from the SARSCoV-2 coronavirus family. To prevent the spread of countries without effective health measures, the World Health Organization (WHO) in its reports assessed the risk as very high globally and on March 11, 2020, officially declared a pandemic.


COVID-19, Virus, Coronavirus, Pandemic, Policy, Response


The COVID-19 pandemic struck like a lightning on a clean sunny day [1]. When reviews surfaced at the possibility of a brand new pandemic with inside the first months of 2020, the general public felt no want for alarm. Many remembered the 2009-2010 H1N1 flu pandemic, which affected a predicted sixty one million human beings, however brought on handiest and predicted 275,000 hospitalisations and 12,500 deaths and didn't entrench itself in maximum international locations. Such a response couldn't be farther far from the destiny state of affairs because the COVID-19 pandemic proved to be a very unique is counted. Its price of transmission became rather contagious and its loss of life price among older humans became extraordinarily excessive. Hopes that COVID-19 will now no longer escape from China have been quickly confounded because it ravaged Northern Italy and taken hospitals and extensive care devices on this vicinity to breaking point. In a be counted of weeks, different international locations registered heaps of instances and an about 3.5% mortality price while this figure for H1N1 flu pandemic became entirely 0.2%. It is consequently comprehensible that due to the fact that mid-2020 the scholarly area has been now awash with coverage reviews and empirical studies focusing at the aetiology and the wideranging financial, social and mental effects of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The COVID-19 can infect human beings of every age [2]. According to the epidemiological image so far, the aged and those with fitness complications (which include asthma, diabetes, coronary heart sickness) appear like greater prone to the virus. Healthcare companies endorse human beings of every age to take steps to shield themselves in opposition to the virus, more often than not through adhering to good enough hand hygiene and using precautionary measures with inside the occasion of coughing and sneezing.

Literature Review


The pandemic time bomb can also additionally were activated [3]. We are powerless to forestall it or maybe sluggish it down. All the technological know-how we are able to muster, all of the cash we are able to spend, all of the era at our disposal can be swamped through this tsunami of sickness. It can also additionally ravage towns, convey effective international locations to their knees and emerge as the finest killer in centuries. The numbers it'd kill are so massive they project our comprehension.

This isn't always the paintings of a few genocidal terrorist. There isn't any terrorist weapon that may come near drawing close this stage of fatality. Death in this scale can handiest be completed through the effect of a large asteroid or a microscopic ghoul. The latter case will depart our towns standing; however they'll be empty and sullen. This isn't always a brief worldwide devastation of hearth place and brimstone. It is a sluggish worldwide devastation of blood and phlegm and pain.

The manner this pandemic kills is terrifyingly grisly. Historical bills inform of folks that have been flawlessly healthful with inside the morning, ill through lunchtime and choking to loss of life through evening. A huge immune response reasons lungs to bubble up with a liquid froth of bloody pus spume, that is coughed up as a brilliant crimson soup and shortly starts oozing from everywhere in the body. Projectile nosebleeds are brought about through the remarkable pressures constructing up from inside. As the lungs can now no longer get oxygen, the sufferers flip grey-blue. Swollen, blanketed in blood and pus, actually exploding from the fluid that inexorably pours into the lungs and below the skin, they suffocate and finally, mercifully, their lives give up and so does their suffering.

The impossibly green killer able to such destruction isn't always a few Dr. Strangelove complicated mechanical nuclear fission tool however a microscopic clump of protein so small it'd take 1000 located give up to give up to stretch throughout the diameter of a human hair.

This infinitesimal blob of natural be counted that staggers the creativeness is neither definitely dwelling nor inanimate. It is neither an unmarried-celled nor a multicellular organism. It is a virus, a time period that everybody has heard of however few human beings definitely comprehend. It can high-quality be defined as a piece of genetic cloth wrapped up in a protein shell, whose handiest motive for lifestyles is to contaminate dwelling cells, forcing them to make copies of the virus itself till they burst, the copies then repeating the identical cycle themselves.


Since it have become clean that the outbreak of SARS in 2003 became resulting from the virus presently called SARS-CoV, researchers have attempted to discover treatment plans for this new human pathogen [4]. Because SARS is a sickness of the higher airlines and lungs, it is able to be pretty smooth to manage healing siRNAs. Replication of influenza virus, RSV and PIV with inside the lungs of mice may be inhibited through intravenous or intranasal management of siRNAs/ shRNAs. Following a comparable route, siRNAs in opposition to SARS-CoV is probably powerful as new antiviral therapeutics. Both shRNAs and siRNAs should efficaciously block SARS-CoV replication in mobileular way of life infections. The foremost viral goal in those researches is the polymerase gene, despite the fact that additionally different areas which include the 5′ and 3′ Untranslated areas (UTRs), the spike protein gene and the Transcriptional Regulator Sequence (TRS) were focused efficaciously. Potent siRNA inhibitors in opposition to the SARS-CoV spike and pol genes have been similarly examined for efficacy and protection in a rhesus macaque SARS model. The siRNAs have been administered intranasally as prophylactic, concurrent, or early post publicity remedies. Similar to research in mice with anti- RSV siRNAs, those remedies with anti-SARS siRNAs confirmed each prophylactic and healing effect. siRNA remedy confirmed a considerable discount in SARS like signs, viral RNA tiers and lung histopathology.

Antiviral RNAi techniques have been additionally examined in opposition to these days observed human coronavirus, NL63- CoV. This virus is related to acute respiration infection in younger children, aged and immunocompromised humans and it became these days related greater mainly to croup. siRNAs focused on the spike sequences significantly inhibited virus replication at 3-5 nM concentration.


The World Health Organization (WHO) declared SARS-CoV-2 as a plague on March 11, 2020 [5]. It became the start of a totally difficult time, specifically for older adults. According to studies, older people are much more likely to get COVID-19 and feature plenty worse effects in comparison with the overall population, mainly with younger human beings. In addition, the extent of mortality of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in older adults has been striking. If they've sure comorbidities, they'll be at an extra danger of contamination and go through worse effects. The use of vaccinations in opposition to the virus to a tremendous quantity prevents the sickness from spreading; however it does now no longer absolutely get rid of the experience of threat.

Health dangers result in many different issues due to the fact a number of pandemic exceeds the region of medicine. It is vital to underline the social context of the epidemic state of affairs. The worldwide advice for older populations consists of social isolation. It entails staying at domestic and heading off touch with different human beings for a few length of time, presently predicted to be among 3 and 4 months, relying at the rules mainly international locations. Older adults in want of care are especially depending on own circle of relatives and pals. However, social isolation consists of heading off near direct touch with own circle of relatives individuals and pals in the event that they do now no longer stay collectively. Older adults may additionally rely upon the assist of voluntary offerings and social care. They can arrange the shipping of crucial items, which include groceries and medications.

Some older adults are dealing with extra difficulties at this time. The unfold of COVID-19 in nursing houses is taking a devastating toll on older adults’ lives. Some distressing reviews suggest times of overlook or mistreatment. Some older folks that are in quarantine or locked down with own circle of relatives individuals or caregivers may additionally face better dangers of violence, abuse and overlook.

Clinical manifestations

Despite the giant of SARS-CoV-2 contamination, there are nonspecific medical manifestations of the sickness [6]. At the preliminary presentation, maximum COVID-19 sufferers occur fever, dry cough and myalgia or fatigue. However, a few sufferers are asymptomatic. Fever and cough are the most important signs on the early degree of the infection, while diarrhea, sore throat and chest tightness are rare.

During the sickness path, a few sufferers broaden Acute Respiration misery Syndrome (ARDS) and septic shock, which result in a multiple-organ failure, which include liver dysfunction, coronary heart failure and abnormalities in renal feature related to accelerated blood urea nitrogen. Besides this, the affected person can also additionally revel in a version in everyday values of blood factors which include accelerated neutrophils, expanded C-reactive protein, decreased lymphocyte counts (especially T lymphocytes) and haemoglobin counts. The discount with inside the quantity of T lymphocytes became additionally diagnosed in sufferers with extreme acute respiration syndrome coronavirus contamination (SARS-CoV). The absolute lymphocyte count that is under the everyday variety might be taken into consideration as a reference index with inside the medical settings even as assessing novel coronavirus.


During the COVID-19 pandemic, the reviews of the maximum prone and marginalised in societies have had little direct affect at the guidelines and exercise that have to be created for his or her advantage and protection [7]. There has additionally been a steady fashion of fitness and social care studies, coverage and exercise being created approximately those human beings and companies however now no longer with them. This is notwithstanding network participation being critical for powerful and pandemic responses. Insights and enter from groups and specifically marginalised companies, can become aware of and cope with vital problems which can be in any other case exacerbated via a loss of interest and/or sources being devoted to them. How is it that such a lot of human beings may be neglected at a time while we've got all been rallied to make a contribution to a country wide or certainly worldwide, effort? Well, these final results became totally predictable for the ones already attractive with participatory processes, affected person and public involvement and personled initiatives. Rhetoric approximately public and carrier person involvement has tended to be earlier of the fact. Organisational obstacles have lengthy been documented in affected person and public involvement and carrier person literature. Despite many years of activism, such involvement and participatory exercise in fitness and social care studies, coverage and exercise continues to be predominantly taken into consideration ‘pleasant to have’ however non-crucial. The pandemic has visible statutory coverage commitments to affected person and public involvement and shared decisionmaking in fitness structures in large part deserted with the ‘not anything approximately us without us’ mantra ‘left putting with inside the breeze’. Consequently, with the apparent demanding situations posed through a plague, comanufacturing became constantly vulnerable to being taken into consideration as a ‘delivered extra’ in place of as essential to a hit and sustainable reaction that addresses the wishes of groups. During the pandemic, the distance among rhetoric and fact has brought on a few to argue that there was sufficient talk, empty promises and superficial gestures, that the time for ambitious language approximately being devoted to participatory processes has surpassed and now greater than ever is a time for ambitious motion. It is apparent that matters want to alternate. But despite the fact that an authentic will for and dedication to alternate may be summoned, human beings want to understand a way to make it happen.

During this pandemic, a few have swum in opposition to the tide of exclusion, demonstrating that such exclusion became/ isn't always inevitable. Driven through necessity, ethical responsibility, pragmatism, a mixture of those motivations and/or many others, a few have determined methods to make certain marginalised companies and those who could have in any other case been excluded have been as an alternative included. Their inclusion permits them to elevate attention of problems and wishes that require interest and to actively make a contribution to decision-making methods that have been and are of effect to them. In many times, those companies have been running collectively at a distance, frequently aided through virtual technologies. But responses have now no longer been uniform. In this quantity we convey collectively a variety of efforts and processes from round the sector which have facilitated human beings to beat back in opposition to topdown decision making as a default pandemic reaction and as an alternative exhibit innovation aleven though a dedication to greater inclusive and participatory exercise.


The demanding situations offered through the unfold of the COVID-19 internationally have been a take a look at of federal structures typically and intergovernmental members of the family mainly [8]. The pandemic created styles of crises, one with critical implications for public fitness and the alternative affecting country wide and subnational economies. These units of problems have been generally visible as in opposition with every different, albeit at the information that if the health disaster have been controlled fast and successfully, they might be reconciled. How the anxiety among the 2 performed out in any federation relied on a combination of ideological preferences, the federal department of powers and the realities at the ground. In each case, however, those complicated, interlinked crises, affecting the lives of groups in such a lot of respects, required a workout of authority through all tiers of presidency. Each stage of presidency had a function of a few type to play, even wherein formal emergency powers have been invoked. Failure became all too obvious, putting a top rate on functionality and performance. More frequently than now no longer, a powerful reaction required coordination throughout jurisdictional lines, each horizontal and vertical, in methods that still preserved the capacity for localised divergence.

In the evaluation that follows, intergovernmental members of the family are understood widely as overlaying all times wherein governments in a federal structures paintings collectively throughout jurisdictional barriers with inside the not unusual place interest. The time period as a result refers to hobby that, strictly speaking, is probably defined as intragovernmental inasmuch as an organization of 1 stage of presidency is constituted to include representatives of any other: the German Bundesrat, comprising representatives of Land governments, is an example. The time period additionally consists of members of the family among governments that, from the viewpoint of the formal constitutional scheme, are constitutionally or legally mandated, in addition to the ones wherein joint motion is voluntary. In addition, it consists of conditions wherein joint motion is top-down and in impact coercive in place of ‘cooperative’, to invoke any other time period frequently used on this context.

A vast and inclusive information of the challenge is necessitated through the type of processes to intergovernmental members of the family on this variety of federal kind structures, processes which might be manifested now no longer handiest with inside the practices which can be followed however with inside the methods wherein intergovernmental members of the family are conceived and defined. A narrower technique could danger a partial information of ways governments interacted with every different in responding to Covid-19. Conversely, it could be that evaluation of the variety of responses to Covid-19 permits a greater nuanced, important appraisal of intergovernmental members of the family which identifies practices which can be greater effective than others without always except any from the field.



The coronavirus pandemic has systematically challenged how states govern, exposing the weaknesses in each political system [9]. In the primary months of what has become the COVID-19 pandemic, there have been no powerful vaccinations or remedies for the virus. Medical experts knew little approximately a way to deal with the sickness and have been compelled to accept techniques that supported sufferers even as hoping that their bodies could recover.

Without scientific manner of addressing the pandemic, states needed to rely upon measures designed to save these unfold of sickness. The first response of many nations became to shut their borders with inside the desire that COVID-19 could now no longer unfold to their shores. But in lots of instances, those regulations have been too little, too late. As they have become privy to the quantity to which the coronavirus became already circulating amongst their population, an increasing number of international locations determined to go into a few shape of “lockdown,” basically shutting down factors of society deemed to be nonessential. For many states, lockdown worried considerable Non-pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) in public and personal life: quarantine; bodily distancing requirements; bans on massive gatherings; stay at domestic orders; closures of schools, businesses and public transport; protecting requirements; and different measures. When successfully implemented, those public fitness measures managed the unfold of the virus and so decreased its loss of life toll. But additionally they got here with considerable financial fees and political implications.

The achievement or failure of lockdown interventions in controlling these unfold and effect of COVID-19 became now no longer reliant upon sources alone, however contingent on politics. Rich international locations with reputedly good enough sources to address the pandemic struggled to behave due to excessive partisanship and a loss of public accepts as true within authorities. Societies with an unequal distribution of electricity and wealth noticed that unequal distribution replicated with inside the effect of COVID-19. And worldwide companies designed to coordinate movements amongst states struggled as international locations started to show inward and compete in opposition to every different for sources.

Despite those political demanding situations, a few international locations have been to begin with a hit in what have become called “pulling down the curve,” controlling the unfold of the virus to such an quantity that expected peaks of instances and deaths have been much less extreme and did now no longer crush their fitness structures. In those international locations, public fitness measures efficaciously decreased transmission to a pretty low stage, such that commentators and politicians started speaking approximately “go out techniques,” methods to transition out of lockdown and again to something like everyday life. It slowly have become clean, however, that a smooth go out from strict pandemic measures became now no longer an option. Jurisdictions that lifted lockdown measures too quickly noticed resurgence in instances and deaths. Rather than being an acute disaster, COVID-19 became a disaster without a diagnosed give up point, probably requiring months and in all likelihood years of sustained authorities motion to cope with.

Everyday life

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered human being’s lives [10]. While pandemics have of path passed off earlier than, for contemporary day instances COVID-19 has been surprisingly negative and inhibitory in scale. However, what this pandemic stocks with preceding ones is having a disproportionately damaging effect on folks that have been already deprived through structural inequalities earlier than the pandemic started. The virus has been especially pervasive and negative in its effect on Black, Asian and minorities ethnic companies; human beings of decrease socioeconomic status; human beings in undervalued employment; human beings dwelling in disadvantaged areas, negative housing and/or overcrowded accommodation; older human beings; disabled human beings; human beings with studying difficulties; human beings with psycho-social disabilities and those with long time conditions specifically peoples that rely upon social care. This has brought on us to mirror at the relative strengths and weaknesses of processes generally taken in contemporary day politics and public coverage in general and fitness and social care mainly, in addition to recollect options that might higher serve us with inside the destiny.

Predictably, the ones maximum significantly tormented by COVID-19 are the human beings and companies who're now in large part being neglected in growing responses to the pandemic and therefore are similarly detrimentally impacted through it in lots of instances fatally. Co-manufacturing gives an alternative. It is steady with efforts to project the exclusionary nature of plenty ideology underpinning fitness and social care coverage and exercise and to transport to greater inclusive and participatory processes.


Infected people may be asymptomatic or develop symptoms such as fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath or muscle aches. The development of these symptoms can lead to severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, septic shock and death. The incubation time ranges from one to 14 days, although it usually lasts five days.


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