Mini Review - Journal of Clinical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2023) Volume 7, Issue 4
Biomarkers in neurological disorders: Potential for early detection and treatment strategies.
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, The Institution Industrial and Technology, Sonarpur, Jagadishpur, Kolkata
- Corresponding Author:
- Karthikeya Yada
School of Chemistry
University of Melbourne
Received: 28-July-2023, Manuscript No. AACBC-22-108992; Editor assigned: 29-July-2023, PreQC No. AACBC-22-108992(PQ); Reviewed: 14-Aug-2023, QC No. AACBC-22-108992; Revised: 18-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AACBC-22-108992(R); Published: 25-Aug-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacbc-7.4.165
Citation: Yada K. Biomarkers in neurological disorders: Potential for early detection and treatment strategies. J Clin Bioanal Chem. 2023;7(4):165
Neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis, pose significant challenges for healthcare systems worldwide. They're often characterized by a slow onset, progressive nature, and the absence of definitive diagnostic tools and therapies. The field of biomarkers, which refers to objectively measurable indicators of biological states or conditions, holds considerable promise for the early detection and treatment strategies of these debilitating diseases .
A biomarker can be a molecule, gene, characteristic, or process that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease. For example, cholesterol levels are a biomarker for cardiovascular disease risk. In the context of neurological disorders, biomarkers might include specific proteins, genetic variants, or brain images indicative of disease. Biomarkers in neurological disorders can serve multiple purposes. They can aid in disease diagnosis, serve as indicators of disease progression, provide insights into the underlying disease mechanisms, and help in evaluating responses to treatment. By doing so, they can facilitate the development of more effective, personalized treatment strategies.
Disease diagnosis biomarkers can help distinguish neurological disorders from other conditions with similar symptoms, leading to earlier, more accurate diagnoses. For instance, elevated levels of tau and amyloid-beta proteins in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain imaging can help diagnose Alzheimer's disease. Disease progression some biomarkers can indicate disease severity or progression. For example, neurofilament light chain (NfL), a neuronal damage marker, is elevated in the CSF and blood of patients with multiple sclerosis, correlating with disease activity and progression .
Treatment Response -Biomarkers can also be used to monitor responses to treatment. In Parkinson's disease, for example, specific molecular changes can indicate how well a patient is responding to medication or other interventions. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of amyloidbeta plaques and tau protein tangles in the brain. Both can be measured in the CSF, and recent developments in PET imaging allow for the visualization of these proteins in the living brain .
Parkinson's disease is associated with the loss of dopamineproducing cells and the accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein. Alpha-synuclein can be detected in the CSF, and imaging techniques can be used to assess dopamine function in the brain. Multiple sclerosis biomarkers such as NfL and myelin basic protein in the CSF or blood can reflect the extent of neuronal damage and demyelination.
Despite the promising potential of biomarkers in neurological disorders, several challenges remain. Many potential biomarkers are not specific to a single disorder, making it difficult to differentiate between conditions. Additionally, obtaining biomarkers often involves invasive procedures like lumbar punctures, which may not be suitable for all patients. However, recent advances in technology offer new opportunities. The development of 'liquid biopsies' for neurodegenerative diseases, involving the analysis of blood or other body fluids, could provide a less invasive method to measure biomarkers. Advances in neuroimaging, genomics, and data analysis are also opening new avenues for biomarker discovery .
Moreover, there's an increasing recognition of the potential of multi-modal biomarker models. Combining multiple types of biomarkers (e.g., genetic, biochemical, imaging) may offer a more comprehensive view of disease state and progression than individual biomarkers alone. While challenges exist, the field of biomarkers in neurological disorders is one of immense potential. With ongoing research and technological advancements, biomarkers may revolutionize our ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat neurological disorders, ultimately improving patient outcomes and quality of life .
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