Mini Review - Neurophysiology Research (2023) Volume 5, Issue 1
Anencephaly and non-neural organs in a child with congenital abnormalities.
Antunes Gremeau *
Department of Neurology, Moi University, Kenya
- *Corresponding Author:
- Antunes Gremeau
Department of Neurology
Moi , Kenya
Received: 27-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AANR-23-89387; Editor assigned: 31-Jan-2023, PreQC No. AANR-23-89387 (PQ); Reviewed:14-Feb-2023, QC No. AANR-23-89387; Revised:16-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AANR-23-89387 (R); Published: 23-Feb-2023, DOI: 10.35841/aanr-5.1.132
Citation: Gremeau A. Anencephaly and non-neural organs in a child with congenital abnormalities. Neurophysiol Res. 2023;5(1):132
Anencephaly is a congenital absence of a large brain region, cranium, or forehead that begins during the first trimester and progresses throughout the pregnancy. Failure of cranial neurulation, the embryologic process that separates the progenitors of the neocortex from amniotic fluid, is the fundamental defect. A hindbrain and optic nerves, cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord, among other nervous system elements, can become abnormal. Diprosopus, low set ears, flattened nasal bridge and cleft palate are all related abnormalities. Corneal clouding, microphthalmia and exophthalmos are all common complications
Congenital abnormalities, Non-neural organs, New-borns.
Anencephaly's non-neural glands New-borns with anencephaly, major circulatory abnormalities that would limit heart transplantation occur. Hypo plastic left-heart syndrome, aortic coarctation, chronic truncus arteriosus, pulmonary atresia, single ventricle and other serious septal abnormalities are examples of these. In the lungs, neural heterotopias can arise, which are most likely seeded by the amniotic fluid . 5 to 34 percent of new-born with anencephaly have hypo plastic lungs, 2 to 6% had diaphragmatic hernia and 1 to half possesses abdomen abnormalities. Anencephaly can be diagnosed with a high degree of confidence in the womb. But, in some situations, it may be difficult to distinguish anencephaly from other severe head deformities .
Lack of the upper section of the cranial vault is used to make the ultrasonography diagnosis. There is either no tissue or an ill-defined mass of heterogeneous density at the level of the orbits, where the cerebral hemispheres are ordinarily visible. Because of defects in the skull and scalp, haemorrhagic, fibrotic tissue is revealed. There are no discernible brain hemispheres. Amniotic bands and foetal adhesions to the placenta are mechanical forces that impede normal development processes. These factors must occur at or before the induction of cerebral development for anencephaly to arise; if events occur later, they may be coupled with cranial vault survival .
Pregnancy with an anencephalic fetus carries a higher risk for both the mother and the fetus. Due to congenital abnormalities affect 13 to 41% of pregnancies and roughly 65 percent of anencephaly-affected fetuses dies in the womb. The infant is at risk during childbirth due to damage to the uncovered cerebral defect and ischemia caused by the placenta's early detachment. Most of these issues, it is assumed, might be efficiently handled. It's unsure how long such infants would be able to survive with regular neonatal intensive care. The Northeast and North Central regions have the greatest rates, while the Mountains and low Plains states have the lowest. As anencephaly is the only main aberration, there is a female character predominance38 and an overabundance of whites. Some feel that prenatal screening and subsequent elective abortion had a significant effect on the rate of neural tube abnormalities. Anencephaly causes infants to be permanently unconscious due to a lack of functioning cerebral cortex. In various degrees, brain-stem activities are present. And although large portions of the brain stem may be damaged, many neurologic functions are intact in live-born new-born with anencephaly. Most neonatal behaviors have been attributed to cerebra .
Hemisphere activity; but, the occurrence of similar behaviors in infants with anencephaly suggests that they originate in the brainstem. A few have wondered if the same justifications that were used to justify removing organs from children with anencephaly could be used to justify removing organs from patients in a persistent vegetative state. A persistent vegetative state is a state of permanent unconsciousness characterized by the loss of all cerebral cortex functions, as well as the inability to recognise oneself or the environment, but with the ability to sleep and wake .
Medical Task Force on Anencephaly seeks to use this document, which is limited to medical issues, to analyses the social, legal and ethical challenges surrounding children with microcephaly. The infant receives routine care until he or she passes away from cardiorespiratory arrest. Organs from the cadaver are removed and transplanted. Chromosomal anomalies babies have been used to make corneas, heart valves and kidneys.
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