Journal of Clinical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

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Perspective - Journal of Clinical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2023) Volume 7, Issue 2

Advances in science: Identification & quantification of DNA and drugs.

Xavier Choi*

Department of Chemistry, Banasthali Vidyapith, Tonk, Rajasthan, India

*Corresponding Author:
Xavier Choi
Department of Chemistry
Banasthali Vidyapith, Tonk, Rajasthan, India

Received: 31-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AACBC-22-94702; Editor assigned: 01-Apr-2023, PreQC No. AACBC-22-94702(PQ); Reviewed: 15-Apr-2023, QC No. AACBC-22-94702; Revised: 21-Apr-2023, Manuscript No. AACBC-22-94702(R); Published: 28-Apr-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacbc-7.2.138

Citation: Choi X. Advances in science: Identification & quantification of DNA and drugs. J Clin Bioanal Chem. 2023;7(2):138

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The identification and quantification of DNA and drugs have revolutionized the fields of forensics, pharmacology, and medical research. These breakthroughs have paved the way for new diagnostic methods, personalized medicine, and forensic investigations, providing valuable insights into human health, drug efficacy, and forensic evidence analysis. In this article, we will explore the cutting-edge technologies and techniques used in the identification and quantification of DNA and drugs, and their impact on various fields. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a molecule that carries the genetic information of an individual, serving as the blueprint for the development, functioning, and traits of living organisms. The identification of DNA has become a powerful tool in forensic investigations, paternity testing, and genealogy research. DNA identification techniques involve the analysis of specific regions of DNA, which are unique to individuals, to determine their identity or relationship [1].

One of the most commonly used techniques for DNA identification is Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), which is a molecular biology method that amplifies specific regions of DNA. PCR allows for the generation of multiple copies of DNA, making it possible to analyze even trace amounts of DNA samples. PCR-based DNA identification methods, such as Short Tandem Repeat (STR) analysis, analyze specific regions of DNA that contain repeating sequences, which are unique to individuals. By comparing the STR profiles of DNA samples from different individuals, forensic scientists can establish identity or determine relationships, such as paternity testing [2].

Another advanced technique used in DNA identification is Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), which enables the sequencing of millions of DNA fragments simultaneously. NGS has revolutionized DNA identification by providing high-throughput sequencing, allowing for the analysis of complex DNA samples, such as degraded or mixed samples, and providing more comprehensive and accurate results.

The quantification of DNA is a critical step in many research and forensic applications, as it determines the amount of DNA present in a sample, which can affect the accuracy and reliability of downstream analyses. Several methods are used for DNA quantification, ranging from traditional spectrophotometric methods to advanced quantitative PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (dPCR) techniques [3].

Spectrophotometric methods involve measuring the absorbance of DNA at specific wavelengths, which correlates with its concentration. However, these methods can be influenced by contaminants and impurities, and may not accurately quantify small amounts of DNA. qPCR and dPCR techniques, on the other hand, are highly sensitive and precise methods that can accurately quantify DNA in a sample. qPCR measures the amplification of a target DNA sequence in real-time, while dPCR partitions the DNA sample into thousands of individual reactions to enable absolute quantification of DNA molecules. Accurate quantification of drugs is crucial in pharmacology, drug development, and therapeutic drug monitoring. It allows for the determination of drug levels in biological samples, assessment of drug efficacy, optimization of drug dosages, and monitoring of drug interactions and toxicities. Several methods are employed for drug quantification, depending on the type of drug, the biological matrix, and the required sensitivity and specificity [4].

One of the most common methods for drug quantification is High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), which separates and quantifies drug compounds based on their chemical properties, such as size, charge, and polarity. HPLC is a versatile and widely used technique that provides high accuracy and precision in drug quantification. Another commonly used method is Mass Spectrometry (MS), which involves the ionization of drug compounds followed by their separation based on their mass-to-charge ratio. MS offers high sensitivity and specificity in drug quantification and is widely used in clinical and forensic laboratories [5].


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