Perspective - Journal of Biotechnology and Phytochemistry (2023) Volume 7, Issue 3
Advancements in the development of transformation and expression systems in ganoderma lucidum
Department of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kate Sara
Department of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences
University of New South Wales
Received:19-May-2023, Manuscript No. AAJBP-23-101740; Editor assigned:23-May-2023, PreQC No. AAJBP-23-101740(PQ); Reviewed:06-Jun-2023, QC No. AAJBP-23-101740; Revised:12-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. AAJBP-23-101740(R); Published:19-Jun-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aajbp-7.3.150
Citation: Sara K. Advancements in the development of transformation and expression systems in ganoderma lucidum.2023;7(3):150
Ganoderma lucidum, commonly known as Reishi or Lingzhi, is a medicinal mushroom highly valued for its potential health benefits. It has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine due to its reputed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. In recent years, there has been growing interest in exploring the therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, leading to increased efforts in developing transformation and expression systems for this remarkable fungus. This article delves into the recent advancements in the development of transformation and expression systems in Ganoderma lucidum and their potential applications .
Transformation is a crucial technique in molecular biology that enables the introduction of foreign genetic material into the genome of an organism. For Ganoderma lucidum, the development of efficient transformation systems has been a significant challenge due to its complex and slow growth characteristics. However, recent breakthroughs have led to the establishment of several transformation methods, including protoplast transformation, biolistic transformation, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Protoplast transformation involves the isolation of fungal protoplasts, the removal of their cell walls, and subsequent introduction of foreign DNA into the protoplasts using techniques like polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation or electroporation. This method has been successfully applied in Ganoderma lucidum, allowing for the introduction of desired genes and subsequent expression of proteins of interest .
Biolistic transformation, also known as particle bombardment, involves the delivery of foreign DNA into intact fungal cells using high-velocity microprojectiles coated with the DNA of interest. This technique has proven effective in Ganoderma lucidum and has been used to introduce foreign genes into the fungus, enabling the production of specific proteins or enzymes with potential applications in medicine or industry. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a widely used method in plant genetic engineering, has also been adapted for Ganoderma lucidum. This technique exploits the natural ability of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer a part of its DNA (T-DNA) into the host organism's genome. By introducing the desired genes into Agrobacterium, which then infects Ganoderma lucidum, foreign DNA can be integrated into the fungal genome, allowing for the expression of target genes .
Once a successful transformation system is established, the next challenge is to develop efficient expression systems to enable the production of recombinant proteins or metabolites in Ganoderma lucidum. Several expression strategies have been employed to achieve high-level expression of target genes, including constitutive promoters, inducible promoters, and fusion proteins. Constitutive promoters are commonly used in expression systems to drive continuous expression of the target gene. In Ganoderma lucidum, the use of constitutive promoters derived from endogenous genes has shown promise in achieving stable and high-level expression of recombinant proteins. These promoters ensure a constant supply of the desired protein throughout the fungal growth cycle .
Inducible promoters offer the advantage of controlling gene expression by specific external factors. This allows for fine-tuning the production of recombinant proteins at desired time points. Inducible promoters responsive to nutrients, temperature, or other environmental factors have been explored in Ganoderma lucidum, providing researchers with a versatile tool for regulating gene expression and optimizing protein production. Fusion proteins, which combine the target protein with a carrier protein or peptide, have been used to enhance the expression and stability of recombinant proteins in Ganoderma lucidum. The carrier protein can facilitate protein folding, improve solubility, or enhance secretion efficiency, resulting in higher yields of the desired protein.
The development of transformation and expression systems in Ganoderma lucidum holds immense potential for various applications. One of the primary areas of interest is the production of bioactive compounds with pharmaceutical applications, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, and proteins with immunomodulatory or anticancer properties. These recombinant products can be used as potential therapeutics or as valuable tools for further research and development. Furthermore, the establishment of robust transformation and expression systems in Ganoderma lucidum opens doors for metabolic engineering approaches. By manipulating the fungal genome, researchers can enhance the production of specific secondary metabolites, optimize pathways, and develop strains with improved characteristics .
Recent advancements in the development of transformation and expression systems in Ganoderma lucidum have paved the way for harnessing the therapeutic potential of this remarkable fungus. The ability to introduce foreign genes and control their expression opens up new avenues for producing valuable compounds and understanding the biological mechanisms underlying Ganoderma lucidum's medicinal properties. Continued research and innovation in this field will undoubtedly lead to exciting breakthroughs and contribute to the advancement of both medicine and biotechnology.
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