Current Trends in Cardiology

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Mini Review - Current Trends in Cardiology (2023) Volume 7, Issue 1

A systematic review of heart rate and respiratory rate in children.

Mari Akre*

Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA

Corresponding Author:
Mari Akre
Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota

Received: 03-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. AACC-23-85466; Editor assigned: 05-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. AACC-23-85466(PQ); Reviewed:19-Jan-2022, QC No AACC-23-85466; Revised: 23-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. AACC-23-85466(R); Published: 30-Jan-2022, DOI:10.35841/aacc-7.1.133

Citation:Akre M. A systematic review of heart rate and respiratory rate in children. Curr Trend Cardiol. 2022;7(1):133

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Heart rate and respiratory rate are frequently monitored in children in emergency situations; the existing reference ranges lack any supporting data. The purpose of this work is to generate new charts for the centiles of heart rate and respiratory rate using data from systematic reviews of prior studies, and to compare these to current worldwide ranges. Important pulse rate used to evaluate children's physiological health in numerous clinical contexts include heart rate and breathing rate. They are employed as baseline measurements in children who are critically ill as well as in those undergoing more rigorous monitoring in high dependence or intensive care settings. Critical parameters used to predict reactions to life-saving measures during cardiopulmonary resuscitation include heart rate and breathing rate. In pediatric early warning scores and triage screening, heart rate and breathing rate continue to be an important component of the conventional clinical evaluation of children presenting with acute diseases. There is strong evidence that early warning scores can provide early notice of clinical deterioration in hospitalized children and in routine clinical care, and they are frequently employed in [1].

Heart rate and respiratory rate measurements are always necessary for the scoring systems supporting the triage and resuscitation protocols for children. By using age-specific thresholds, measured rates are transformed into a numerical score. In order to determine whether a vital sign is abnormal, precise reference ranges are essential. Thresholds that are set incorrectly too high risk missing children who do have tachycardia or tachypnea, whereas those that is set incorrectly too low risk over diagnosing tachycardia or tachypnea. A reference range that is applied to an age range that is too large may also result in an inaccurate evaluation of children who fall within some of these age categories [2].

A child might have a fast heart rate if they are: Playing or exercising vigorously, experiencing pain, Feeling anxious or stressed, experiencing a fever or illness, drinking a lot of caffeine or energy drinks, dehydrated A high heart rate is normally nothing to worry about if your child is exhibiting any of the aforementioned symptoms, though some kids may experience issues if they consume large amounts of caffeine. Keep in mind that your child's heart beats normally quicker than an adult heart does, and that it might beat much faster during exercise. Your child may need medical care if they exhibit symptoms like chest pain or breathing difficulties along with a rapid heartbeat. According to Dr. Kane, a reasonable rule of thumb is that you should seek medical attention if your child's heart is pounding too quickly for you to count the beats. A child's heart rate usually slows down while they are asleep. In contrast, if their heart [3].

A child's pulse can easily be measured. You may check your pulse in a number of locations on your body, such as the side of your neck, inside your elbow, or your wrist. The easiest and most convenient location is on the parent's wrist. Use two fingers to check your child's heart rate by placing them on their wrist just below the thumb. Once you notice a small beat against your fingertips, gradually increase the pressure. After 15 seconds, tally up how many beats you felt. Your child's heart rate is expressed in beats per minute, so multiply that number by four to find it. For instance, if you detect 20 beats in 15 seconds, the heart rate of your child is 80 beats per minute [4].

Our study results suggest that current consensus-based reference ranges for heart rate and respiratory rate, particularly for age groups where our findings show that many children are likely to be misclassified, should be updated with new thresholds based on our proposed centile charts for clinicians involved in the assessment of children. In light of our findings, normal ranges that are published in textbooks and clinical handbooks should also be modified. We provide values corresponding to the median and six distinct centiles for both heart rate and respiratory rate for 13 age groups between birth and 18 years of age to help with the formulation of cut-offs for usage in clinical settings.


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  7. Akre M, Finkelstein M, Erickson M, et al. Sensitivity of the pediatric early warning score to identify patient deterioration. Pediatrics. 2010;125(4):e763-9.
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