Short Communication - Allied Journal of Medical Research (2021) Volume 5, Issue 5
A note on Blood Flow in the Brain
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
- Corresponding Author:
- Kenji Tanaka
Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine,
Accepted date: 16 August, 2021
Citation: Priya NAS. Geriatrics: An overview. Allied J Med Res. 2021;5(5):2
The movement of blood through a network of cerebral arteries and veins that supply the brain is known as cerebral circulation. In an adult human, cerebral blood flow is generally 750 millilitres per minute, or roughly 15% of cardiac output. Arteries supply the brain with oxygenated blood, glucose, and other nutrients. Veins return "used or spent" blood to the heart, removing carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and other metabolic products. Because a loss of blood supply to the brain would cause immediate damage, the cerebral circulatory system has precautions in place, including blood vessel auto regulation. If these protections are not in place, a stroke may occur. The cerebral blood flow is the amount of blood in circulation. Sudden, intense accelerations alter the gravitational forces that body’s sense, drastically impairing cerebral circulation and normal activities to the point that they become life-threatening. The brain's blood supply is generally separated into anterior and posterior segments, which correspond to the various arteries that supply the brain. The Internal carotid arteries (which serve the anterior brain) and the vertebral arteries are the two primary arteries (supplying the brainstem and posterior brain) bilateral posterior connecting arteries connect the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations. They are a part of the Willis Circle, which offers brain backup circulation. The Circle of Willis provides interconnections between the anterior and posterior cerebral circulation along the floor of the cerebral vault, delivering blood to regions that would otherwise become ischemic if one of the supply arteries is clogged.
The movement of blood through the network of blood arteries supplying the brain is referred to as cerebral circulation. The arteries transport oxygenated blood, glucose, and other nutrients to the brain, while the veins return deoxygenated blood to the heart, removing carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and other metabolic waste. An important safeguard is the Willis circle, a vascular anastomosis that delivers blood to the brain and surrounding structures while also providing redundancy in the event of a disruption. Cerebrovascular accidents, sometimes known as strokes, occur when these defences are breached. Cerebral blood flow is the amount of blood carried by the cerebral circulation (CBF). CBF in an adult is about 750 milliters per minute, or about 15% of cardiac output. CBF is strictly controlled to fulfill the metabolic demands of the brain. When there is too much blood in the brain, the Intracranial Pressure (ICP) rises, compressing and damaging fragile brain tissue. Tissue death occurs when there is insufficient blood flow (ischemia). When brain tissue becomes ischemic, a biochemical sequence known as the ischemic cascade is activated, potentially culminating in brain cell damage and death. Medical experts must take precautions to ensure that CBF is maintained in patients suffering from shock, stroke, or traumatic brain damage. The left and right internal carotid arteries, as well as the left and right vertebral arteries, are the four primary arteries that provide blood to the brain. At the base of your brain, these arteries connect and form a circle. This is known as the Willis circle. Different parts of your brain are nourished by smaller blood capillaries that branch off from these arteries. Venous sinuses can also be seen in the brain. These veins take blood away from your skull that contains carbon dioxide and other waste items. Some of them are connected to your scalp and face veins. The blood-brain barrier allows nutrients and waste to be exchanged. This barrier aids in the protection of your brain.