Journal of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.
Reach Us +1 (202) 780-3397

Mini Review - Journal of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (2023) Volume 5, Issue 4

A mini review of immunohistochemistry: Advancements and applications

Cathereine Joe*

Department of Immunology,Princeton University, United States.

*Corresponding Author:
Cathereine Joe
Department of Immunology
Princeton University
United States

Received:26-Jul-2023, Manuscript No. AACPLM-23-108841; Editor assigned:28-Jul-2023, PreQC No. AACPLM-23-108841(PQ); Reviewed:11-Aug-2023, QC No. AACPLM-23-108841; Revised:16-Aug-2023, Manuscript No. AACPLM-23-108841(R); Published:23-Aug-2023, DOI:10.35841/aacplm-5.4.156

Citation: Joe C. A mini review of immunohistochemistry: Advancements and applications. J Clin Path Lab Med. 2023;5(4):156


Immunohistochemistry has emerged as an indispensable tool in modern biomedical research and diagnostic pathology. This mini-review provides a concise overview of the advancements and applications of immunohistochemistry, highlighting its significance in various scientific domains. Over the years, significant advancements in IHC techniques have revolutionized the way researchers and clinicians analyze tissue samples. The introduction of highly specific and sensitive primary antibodies has facilitated the detection of target antigens with enhanced accuracy and precision. Additionally, the development of advanced visualization systems, such as enzyme and fluorescence-based methods, has allowed for multiplexing and co-localization studies, enabling the simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers within the same tissue section[1].

Moreover, digital pathology has brought about a paradigm shift in the field of IHC. Whole-slide imaging coupled with automated image analysis software has streamlined data acquisition and analysis, reducing subjectivity and increasing reproducibility. These digital tools have expedited large-scale studies, biomarker profiling, and personalized medicine approaches[2].


Immunohistochemistry finds extensive applications in both research and clinical settings. In basic research, IHC plays a critical role in investigating disease pathogenesis, identifying novel biomarkers, and understanding cellular processes. By visualizing the distribution and expression levels of specific antigens in tissues, researchers can decipher molecular mechanisms underlying diseases, providing valuable insights for drug development and therapeutic targeting[3].

In clinical practice, IHC has transformed diagnostic pathology. Pathologists routinely utilize IHC to complement conventional histopathology in the classification and grading of tumors. The expression of various markers in tumor samples assists in accurate cancer diagnosis, prognostication, and guiding treatment decisions. Additionally, IHC has been instrumental in differentiating between different subtypes of cancer, which is crucial for tailoring personalized treatment strategies. Beyond cancer, IHC is also employed in the study of various other diseases, including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. In these contexts, IHC helps identify specific cellular targets or immune responses that aid in disease diagnosis and therapeutic interventions[4].

In conclusion, immunohistochemistry has evolved into an indispensable technique in biomedical research and clinical pathology. Continuous advancements in antibody specificity, imaging technologies, and digital analysis tools have significantly improved the sensitivity, accuracy, and scope of IHC applications. By providing valuable information on tissue-specific antigen expression, IHC continues to play a pivotal role in enhancing our understanding of disease biology and advancing personalized medicine approaches [5].


  1. Ramos-Vara JA. Technical aspects of immunohistochemistry.Vet Pathol. 2005; 42(4):405-26.
  2. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  3. Adams JC. Biotin amplification of biotin and horseradish peroxidase signals in histochemical stains. J Histochem Cytochem. 1992; 40(10):1457-63.
  4. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  5. Albrechtsen R, Wewer U, Wimberley PD. Immunohistochemical demonstration of a hitherto undescribed localization of hemoglobin A and F in endodermal cells of normal human yolk sac and endodermal sinus tumor.Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 1980; 88(1?6):175-8.
  6. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

  7. Arber JM, Arber DA, Jenkins KA, et al. Effect of decalcification and fixation in paraffin-section immunohistochemistry..Appl Immunohistochem. 1996; 4:241-8.
  8. Google Scholar

  9. Banerjee DI, Pettit SA. Endogenous avidin-binding activity in human lymphoid tissue.J Clin Pathol. 1984; 37(2):223-5.
  10. Indexed at, Google Scholar, Cross Ref

Get the App