Opinion Article - Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (2023) Volume 13, Issue 101
A Cross-Sectional Study on Antibiotic Resistance in E. coli Isolates from Unaffected Livestock
Michael P. Doyle *
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Michael P. Doyle
Department of Environmental Health Sciences
The Ohio State University
E-mail: Javier Vanegas@ua.pt
Received:31-Aug -2023, Manuscript No. AABPS-23-114190; Editor assigned: 05-Sep-2023, PreQC No. AABPS-23-114185 (PQ); Reviewed:19-Sep-2023, QC No. AABPS-23-114190; Revised:25-Sep-2023, Manuscript No. AABPS-23-114190 (R); Published: 30-Sep-2023, DOI:10.35841/ aabps-13.101.198
Citation: P. Doyle M. A cross-sectional study on antibiotic resistance in E. Coli isolates from unaffected livestock. Asian J Biomed Pharmaceut Sci. 2023;13(101):198
Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern worldwide, affecting both human and animal health. One of the key reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is domestic livestock, where routine antibiotic use for growth promotion and disease prevention can contribute to the emergence of resistant strains. Escherichia coli (E. coli), a common gut bacterium in animals, is often used as an indicator organism for monitoring antibiotic resistance. This study aims to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli isolated from apparently healthy domestic livestock, shedding light on the prevalence and potential risks associated with antibiotic resistance in the livestock industry .
Sample collection: Fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy domestic livestock, including cattle, pigs, sheep, and poultry, from multiple farms in diverse geographic regions. Isolation of E. coli: E. coli strains were isolated from fecal samples using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were cultured on selective media, and characteristic colonies were further identified through biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: The antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli isolates was determined using the disk diffusion method or automated systems, following Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A panel of antibiotics representing different classes was used, including beta-lactams, tetracyclines, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and sulfonamides. Selected antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates were subjected to molecular characterization using techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect specific resistance genes. The presence of plasmids carrying resistance determinants was also investigated. Data on antibiotic resistance patterns and the presence of resistance genes were analyzed statistically to determine prevalence rates and potential associations between resistance profiles and livestock types or geographic regions .
The study revealed diverse antibiotic resistance patterns among E. coli isolates from different livestock species. Resistance was most commonly observed against tetracyclines, followed by beta-lactams and sulfonamides. Multiple drug resistance (MDR), defined as resistance to three or more antibiotic classes, was detected in a significant proportion of isolates .
Resistance genes: Molecular characterization identified the presence of various resistance genes, including those encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), tetracycline efflux pumps, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants. The presence of these genes highlighted the genetic basis of antibiotic resistance in the isolates. Livestock and Regional Variation: Analysis of the data revealed variations in antibiotic resistance profiles among different livestock species and geographic regions. Factors such as farming practices, antibiotic use, and animal contact may contribute to these variations. The findings of this study underscore the significance of monitoring antibiotic resistance in apparently healthy domestic livestock. The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli, including multidrug-resistant strains, raises concerns about the potential transfer of these bacteria to humans through food consumption or direct contact with animals. Furthermore, the presence of resistance genes suggests the role of horizontal gene transfer in disseminating resistance within livestock populations .
Understanding the factors contributing to antibiotic resistance in domestic livestock, such as antibiotic use patterns, animal management practices, and geographic influences, is crucial for devising targeted interventions to mitigate the spread of resistance. Responsible antibiotic use in veterinary medicine and the implementation of prudent antibiotic stewardship practices are essential steps toward preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics for both animal and human health. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into the antibiotic resistance profile of E. coli in apparently healthy domestic livestock. It emphasizes the need for continued surveillance, research, and collaborative efforts among the veterinary, medical, and public health communities to address the complex issue of antibiotic resistance in the livestock sector and its potential implications for global health .
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