Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) like coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and heart failure. Strong association is present between renal disease progression & dyslipidemia. The present study was undertaken to study the comparative effect of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis on lipid profile in these patients. 100 diagnosed CKD patients i.e. cases (50 undergoing hemodialysis HD and 50 undergoing peritoneal dialysis PD) were enrolled for the study after institutional ethical committee’s clearance was obtained. In this study, we measured serum levels of lipid profile comprising of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and atherogenic ratios (LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C). In our study, we found that the mean values of TC, LDL-C and atherogenic ratios (LDL-C/HDL-C, TC/HDL-C) were significantly higher and HDL-C was significantly lower in cases of peritoneal dialysis group as compared to cases of hemodialysis group. Out of both dialysis modalities, peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients develop a somewhat different and probably more atherogenic lipoprotein profile than do hemodialysis (HD) patients. So, among patients with cardiovascular disease, the risk for death was higher in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients than in hemodialysis (HD) patients.